B1 - You And Your Genes

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What does a nucleus contain?
Genetic material
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What does the genetic material contain?
23 pairs of chromosomes
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How many chromosomes does a human cell have?
46
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What is considered to be a very long molecule of DNA?
A chromosome
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Where is a gene found?
On a short length of a chromosome
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What do genes control?
The development of characteristics
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What are different versions of a gene called?
Alleles
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What does a gene contain?
Instructions for making proteins
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What is a strctural protein?
They're part of things like skin, hair, blood and cytoplasm. E.g. collagen is a structural protein found in bones and cartilage
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What is a functional protein?
A protein that speeds up chemical reactions. For example, enzymes are proteins that help with digestion
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What are the 2 types of protein that a gene holds the code for?
Structural and functional
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What is a genotype?
It is all of the genes it has
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What is a phenotype?
The characteristics that an organism displays
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What are factors called that aren't controlled by genes?
Environmental
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How many chromosomes do a sex cell contain?
23
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What are alleles?
Different versions of the same gene
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Why does a child look like their parents?
Because they have 50% of their genes from each parent.
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Why do siblings look alike?
They have 50% of their DNA from their parents, and some of the alleles will be the same.
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What determines the phenotype?
The combination of alleles
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What does homozygous mean?
That you have 2 alleles the same for that particular gene
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What does heterozygous mean?
That you have 2 different alleles for that gene
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What is a dominant allele?
An allele that will always show its characteristic
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How is a domianant allele represented?
By a capital letter
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What is a recessive allele?
An allele that will only show its characteristic if the other allele is recessive
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What are the 2 types of genetic diagrams?
Family tree and Punnett square
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How is a recessive allele represented?
With a lower case letter
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What is a males pair of chromosomes?
XY
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What is a females pair of chromosomes?
XX
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Which chromosome causes male characteristics and explain what it does?
Y. It causes the develpment of the testes, which then produces male sex hormones, which then make a male develop
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What are genetic disorders caused by?
Faulty alleles
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What is cystic fibrosis caused by and what are the symptoms?
It is caused by 2 recessive alleles. The symptoms are; Thick sticky mucus in the air passages, gut and pancreas; Breathing difficulty; Chest Infections; Difficulty in digesting food
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What is Huntingtons disease caused by and what are the symptoms?
It is caused by a dominant allele. The symptoms are; tremors, clumsiness, memory loss, mood changes and poor concentration
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What is PGD used for?
It is used when a parent is concerned about if they are passing a genetic disorder onto their child.
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Why are people genetically tested before being prescribed to drugs?
Because it will show how the drug will affect the person
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What are the issues surrounding genetic testing?
They are not 100% accurate; Their could be false negative/positive results; It is not 100% safe; Should they tell people the results?; Is it right to terminate the pregnancy?; Could cause discrimination
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What is a false positive?
Healthy people being told that they have a disorder
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What is a false negative?
A person with a disorder being told that they are healthy
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What are clones?
Organisms that are genetically identical
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How are clones made naturally?
Twins or asexual reproduction
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How is an animal clone made in a lab?
An egg cell has its nucleus removed and a donor cell's nucleus is put in the egg cell.
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When do most cells become speacilised?
early development of the organism
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What are stem cells?
Cells that are unspeacialised so that they can be given instructions
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What are the 2 main types of stem cells?
Embroyonic and adult stem
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What is an embroyonic stem cell?
They are found in embroyos and have the potential to turn into any cell. The stem cells get removed from the embroyo, then the embroyo is destroyed.
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What is an Adult Stem cell?
Involved in maintaining and repairing old and damaged tissue and can specialise into many cell types
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What can stem cells be used to treat?
Many illnesses. Such as sickle cell anaemia and replacing faulty cells in sick people
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What is a carrier?
Someone who has a recessive allele that can be passed onto offspring. But the characteristics never show because you only have one recessive allele
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Card 2

Front

What does the genetic material contain?

Back

23 pairs of chromosomes

Card 3

Front

How many chromosomes does a human cell have?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is considered to be a very long molecule of DNA?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where is a gene found?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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