B1 Topic 1: Classification, variation and inheritance

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What is the order of the categories of classification?
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
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What are the five kingdoms which all living things divide into?
Plantae, animalia, fungi, protoctists, prokaryotes
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What is classification?
Organising living organisms into groups
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What are the main characteristics of animalia?
Multicellular; does not have cell walls; do not have chlorophyll; feed heterotrophically
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What are the main characteristics of plantae?
Multicellular; have cell walls; have chlorophyll; feed autotrophically
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What are the main characteristics of fungi?
Multicellular; have cell walls; don't have chlorophyll; feed saprophytically
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What are the main characteristics of protoctista?
Unicellular; have a nucleus
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What are the main characteristics of prokaryotes?
Unicellular; don't have a nucleus
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What is meant by feeding heterotrophically?
Cannot make their own food
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What is meant by feeding autotrophically?
Produce their own food
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What is meant by feeding saprophytically?
Feed off dead organisms and decaying materials
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What is the definition of multicellular?
Made of more than one cell
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What is the definition of unicellular?
Made of just one cell
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What do vertebrates have?
Backbone and an internal skeleton
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What is the phylum Chordata made up of?
Vertebrates
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What are the groups that vertebrates are divided into (classes)?
Mammals; reptiles; fish; amphibians; birds
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On what criteria are vertebrates placed into groups?
How they absorb oxygen; how they reproduce; how they regulate temperature
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What are different ways of absorbing oxygen?
Using gills; skin; lungs etc
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What are different ways of reproducing?
Oviparous (laying eggs); viviparous (giving birth to live young which are fed milk)
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What are some of the ways vertebrates regulate temperature?
Homeotherms (warm blooded - temperature kept constant via homeostasis); poikilotherms (cold blooded - body temperature is the same as surroundings)
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When organisms of the same species interbreed, what do they produce?
Fertile offspring
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True or false: fertile hybrids can occasionally be produced when organisms from different species breed
True
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True or false: all organisms produce asexually
False. Some organisms reproduce asexually
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What is the word to describe memebers of the same species not looking the same?
Variation
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What is ring species?
A group of related population that live in neighbouring areas
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What can these populations often do?
Interbreed and produce fertile offspring
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What can't populations that live further apart do?
They cannot interbreed and produce fertile offspring
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What does ring species provide evidence of?
Evolution
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What are the two main causes of variation?
Genes and the environment
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What can cause genetic variations?
Mutations or inheritance
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What are examples of characteristics determined by genes?
Eye colour, blood group, inherited disorders
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What is environmental variation?
When the environment causes differences between members of the same species (eg. scars)
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What are adaptations of some deep sea fish to help them survive in the deep sea?
Emit light from parts of body which attracts prey; huge mouths which they drag on sea bed to pick up food; huge eyes to see in the dark; long feelers to help locate prey
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What do chemicals from volcanic vents support?
Bacteria able to make their own food by chemosynthesis (chemical energy)
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Where in the food chain are the bacteria being supported by chemicals from volcanic vents?
Bottom because they are producers
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What are the conditions in volcanic vents?
Extremely hot and there are high pressures
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What are adaptations that helps the polar bear survive in polar regions?
Rounded shape (small surface area); {thick layer of blubber for insulation and energy store; thick hairy coats (prevents or reduces heat loss)}; Big feet prevents sinkage in snow or breakage of ice; white fur for camouflage
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What adaptations do penguins have to survive in the polar regions?
Penguins huddle together to prevent heat loss as well as their oily feathers; streamlined body to reduce resistance when swimming
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What is natural selection?
Process where organisms with favourable traits are more likely to reproduce
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What are the stages of natural selection?
Variation; overproduction; struggle for existence; survival; advantageous characteristics inherited; gradual change
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What are two pieces of evidence for evolution?
DNA research and resistant organisms
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What is an example of resistant organisms?
Warfarin was used to kill rat, but a mutation in their genes made them resistant to warfarin. These rats were able to survive and reproduce. This has lead to entire populations of warfarin resistant rats
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What are three main ways in which the scientific community validates any new scientific evidence?
Scientific journals; the peer review process; scientific conferences
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What is speciation?
Where evolution leads to new species
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When does speciation occur?
When popuations of the same secies become so different they cannot breed to produce a fertile offspring
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What needs to happen for speciation to take place?
Popultions need to be separated (uually happens because of physical barriers such as floods and earthquakes)
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Why will populations become two different species?
Conditions in different places due to barriers will be different, and species start to adapt to conditions
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What do most cells in our body contain?
Nucleus
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How many pairs of chromosomes does each human cell have?
23 pairs
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What do chromosomes carry?
Genes
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What are allees?
Different versions of a gene
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What are chromosomes?
Long lengths of DNA coiled up
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What is a gene?
A short section of DNA
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What is the dominant allele?
The allele for the characteristic that is shown
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What is the recessive allele?
The allele for the characteristic that is not shown
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What is the definition of homozygous?
When two alleles for a particular gene are the same
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What is the definition of heterozygous?
When the two alleles for a particular gene are different
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What is phenotype?
The characteristic you have
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What is genotype?
The alleles you have
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What is a zygote?
A fertilised egg
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While all other cells have two alleles, what type of cells only hae one allele?
Gametes (sex cells)
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What is cystic fibrosis?
A genetic disorder of the cell membranes which results in thick sticky mucus in the air passages, gut and pancreas
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What are symptoms of cystic fibrosis?
Malnutrition, fertility problems, breathing difficulties, lung infections
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What is cystic fibrosis and sickle cell caused by?
A recessive allele
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What is sickle cell anaemia?
A genetic disorder which results in strange shaped red blood cells
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What are the symptoms of sickle cell anaemia?
Tiredness, painful joints and muscles, fever, anaemia
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Card 2

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What are the five kingdoms which all living things divide into?

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Plantae, animalia, fungi, protoctists, prokaryotes

Card 3

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What is classification?

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Card 4

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What are the main characteristics of animalia?

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Card 5

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What are the main characteristics of plantae?

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