B1 Drugs and You

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What can drinking excess alcohol?
lead to unconsciousness, coma or death
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What are the four short-term effects of alcohol?
1. lack of balance and muscle control 2. blurred vision and speech 3. poor judgement and drowsiness 4. vasodilation (the blood vessels widen, increasing blood flow to skin and heat loss
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What are the two long-term effects of alcohol?
1. liver damage due to the liver working very hard to remove the toxic alcohol from the body 2. brain damage due to dehydration
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What does the liver contain which breaks down alcohol?
enzymes
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What are the products of alcohol breakdown in the liver?
toxic and cause liver damage
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What is a common disease among heavy drinkers?
cirrhosis
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What is the legal blood alcohol content limit for driving?
80 milligrams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood
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What diseases can smoking lead to?
cancer of the mouth, throat, oesophagus and lungs, heart disease, emphysema and bronchitis
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What does smoking damage?
the cilia
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Where does cilia line?
the airways eg. trachea, bronchi and bronchioles
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Why is having damaged cilia bad?
it prevents the cilia from being able to remove mucus, tar and dirt from the lungs
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What can having damaged cilia lead to?
smokers cough - as the body tries to cough up the mucus
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What can excess coughing do?
damage the alveoli and cause emphysema
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What chemicals do tar contain?
ones that are irritants and cancer-causing chemicals
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What do particulates do?
accumulate in living tissue eg. lung tissue that can cause cancer
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What is homeostasis?
Your body has automatic control systems to maintain a constant internal environment to ensure that cells can function efficiently
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Why does your body balance inputs and outputs?
to keep the internal environment steady
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what is meant by the term 'keeping the internal environment steady'?
steady temp, steady water levels and steady carbon dioxide levels in the blood
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At what temperature do enzymes work best?
37 Celsius - so your body has to stay very close to that temp
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What is heat produced through respiration used to?
maintain your body temperature
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What happens if the body temperature gets to high?
blood vessels widen and the blood flows closer to the skin so heat can be transferred to the environment. This is also done by sweating - the evaporation of sweat requires heat energy to be removed from the skin
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Why is getting too hot dangerous?
if too much water is lost through sweating, the body become dehydrated. this can lead to heat stroke and even death
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What happpens if the body temperature falls too low?
blood vessels constrict and the blood flow near the skin is reduced, sweating stops and muscles start making tiny contraptions - known as shivers.
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What do shivers need?
energy from respiration
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What is released as a by-product of shivering?
heat
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What is hypothermia?
when the body temperature drops below 35 Celsius
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What can hypothermia cause?
unconsciousness and sometimes death
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How can you get warmer?
putting on more layers and exercise can help to raise body temperature
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Whats the most accurate way of measuring body temperature?
via the ****
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What is body temperature monitored by?
the brain - which switches various temp control mechanisms on and off
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What is vasodilation (when the body is too warm)?
the widening of the blood vessels close to the skins surface in order to increase or reduce heat loss by radiation
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what is vasoconstriction (when the body is too cold)?
the narrowing of the blood vessels close to the skins surface in order to increase or reduce heat loss by radiation
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What does negative feedback involve?
the automatic reversal of a change in condition
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Where does negative feedback occur frequently?
homeostasis
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What is an example of negative feedback?
if the temp falls too low, the brain switches on mechanisms to raise it
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What do temperature control system do?
help to keep a constant temp
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the four short-term effects of alcohol?

Back

1. lack of balance and muscle control 2. blurred vision and speech 3. poor judgement and drowsiness 4. vasodilation (the blood vessels widen, increasing blood flow to skin and heat loss

Card 3

Front

What are the two long-term effects of alcohol?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does the liver contain which breaks down alcohol?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the products of alcohol breakdown in the liver?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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