attachment ; animal studies

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LORENZ
DFGJNGD
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- imprinting
dfgdf
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when did he first observe imprinting?
when neighbour gave him a duckling as a child which followed him around
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- procedure
fdg
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as adult lorenz set up experiment where he randomly divided what?
clutch of goose eggs
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half eggs hatched with who?
mother goose
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in what environemtn?
their natural one
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and other half hatched where?
incubator
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where first moving object they saw was?
lorenz
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- findings
dgdf
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what did incubator group do to lorenz?
followed him everywhere
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what as the control group?
group that hatched with mother
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what did they do?
follow mother everywhere
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when two groups mixed up what happened?
control cont'd follow mother where experimental followed lorenz
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what is this phenomenon called?
imprinting
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where birds attach to?
first moving thing they see
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what did lorenz identify as the time in which imprinting needs to take place called?
critical period
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depending on species can be as brief as?
few hours
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if imprinting doesn't occur what happens?
chicks ddin't attach selves to mother figure
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- sexual imprinting
dfgd
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what relationship did he measure?
imprinting and adilt male preferences
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obs birds that imprinted on humans would later do what?
courtship humans
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in case study what animal did lorenz observe where?
peacock reared in reptile centre where first tihng saw was giant tortoises
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lorenz concluded this meant he had then undergone what?
sexual imprinting
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EVALUATION
DFGFDG
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:( generalisability 2 humanz
egdf
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why is there a problem mainly with birds to humans?
bc humans don't imprint
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what group are we a part of that attach different to birds?
mammals
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for example mammalian mothers show more what kind of attachment to young than birds?
emotional
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and what about time and attachment?
mammals can form attachments at any time (less easily than infancy but still)
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why does this mean not appropriate to generalise to himans?
different attachment systems
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:( some obz have been questioned
dfgd
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what idea about imprinting and later life has been questioned?
that imprinting has a permanent effect on mating behaviour
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what did guiton et al have chickens attach to?
yellow washing up gloves
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and what did they try to do at first?
mate with them as adults
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but with time what happened?
eventually learned to prefer mating with other chickens
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what does this suggest about impact of imprinting on behaviour?
not as permanent as lorenz thought
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HARLOW'S RESEARCH
SDDFSF
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what animal did harlow work with?
rhesus monkeys
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- importance of contact comfort
dfgd
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what did harlow observe about newborns kept alone in bare cage?
usually died
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but usually survived if given what?
something like soft cloth to cuddle
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- procedure
dfgdg
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what idea did he test about soft objects?
that they serve some of the functions of a mother
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in one experiment he reared baby monkeys with two wat?
wire model mothers
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how many babies?
16
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how many mothers did each baby have?
two
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which were?
one plain wire and one cloth covered
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what were the 4 conditions?
two wire / two cloth / one milk wire one cloth / one wire one milk cloth
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what were the two conditions?
plain wire dispensed milk and cloth dispensed milk
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found babies cuddled which mother over the other?
soft one
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and ran to which mother for comfort?
soft one
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regardless of?
which one dispensed milk
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what did this show about importance of contact comfort?
more important than food when comes 2 attachment
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- maternally deprived babies as adults
sdd
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wanted to find out if what from those babies' childhood had permanent effect?
maternal deprivation
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what was found?
severe consequences
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which babies were the most dysfunctional?
those reared with wire mothers alone
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however even those with soft toy as sub didn't dp what?
develop normal social behaviour
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what two things were they compared to others?
aggerssive and unsociable
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and what did they do less than typical and were unskilled at?
mating
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as mothers some deprived monkeys did what to young?
neglected
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and the worst monkeys did what to children?
attacked and killed them
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- critical period for normal development
dffd
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mother had to be introduced to infant monkey within how many days for attachment to form?
90 days
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after this time what was impossible?
attachment
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and early deprivation damage became what?
irreversible
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EVALUATION
DFGD
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:) theoretical value
dfgd
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what did harlow showed most importantly about attachment that it develops as result of?
contact comfort
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instead of?
being fed
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and also showed us importance of quality early relationships for?
later social development
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including ability to do which two things?
hold down adult relationship and successfully read children
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:) practical value
dfgdg
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helped social workers understand risk factors in child eglect and abuse and so?
intervene to prevent it
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ofc findings are also important in care of?
captive monkeys
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and in zoos we understand importance of?
attachment figures in zoos
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and also in wild?
breeding programmes
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:( ethical issues
dfgd
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if species close enough to humans to generalise that also means what?
suffering was quite human like
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what did harlowe refer to the wire omthers as?
iron maidens
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in reference to?
medieval torture device
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and also what was the otehr nasty thing?
the **** rack
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suggesting
he knew full well what he was doing was abuse
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what is the counter-argument to this cruelty?
the ends justified the means
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- imprinting

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dfgdf

Card 3

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when did he first observe imprinting?

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Card 4

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- procedure

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Card 5

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as adult lorenz set up experiment where he randomly divided what?

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