attachment ; ainsworth's

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who developed it?
mary ainsworth
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what was the aim to be able to observe?
key attachment behaviours as a means of assessing the quality of a child's attachment to a caregiver
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- procedure
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what kind of observation was it?
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designed to measure what aspect of the attachment?
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takes place where?
laboratory (room w/highly ctrlled conditions)
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with what in place for psychologicsts to observe infants behaviour?
two-way mirror
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behaviours used to judge attachment included proximity seeking which means?
an infant with a good attachment will stay fairly close to cairgiver
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what is exploration and secure base behaviour in good attachments?
child will feel confident enough to explore, using secure caregiver as a base
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what does stranger anxiety signify?
becoming closely attached
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what is it?
display anxiety when stranger approaches
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what is separation anxiety in attached babies?
protest @ separation from caregiver
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what is response to reunion?
when baby responds when reunited with caregiver after separation for short period time under ctrlled conditions
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how many episodes does the procedure have?
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each of which lasts how long?
three minutes
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what happens at the beginning?
child and careviger enter unfamiliar playroom
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at step one, child is encouraged to?
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which tests?
exploration and secure base
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at two who enters the room?
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and attempts to?
interact with the child
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which tests?
stranger anxiety
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at three who leaves?
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leaving who alone?
stranger and child
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which tests?
separation and stranger anxiety
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at four who returns?
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and who leaves?
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reunion behaviour / exploration + secure base
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at five who is left alone?
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separation anxiety
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at six who returns?
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stranger anxiety
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at seven who returns?
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what does this test?
reunion behaviour
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- findings
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what distinct patterns did ainsworth et al find?
in way infants behaved
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how many main types of attachment did she identify?
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okay, cool, now name them.
secure attachment / insecure-avoidant attachment / insecure-resistant attachment
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what happens to secure attachment kids in proximity seeking and secure base behaviour?
explore happily but regularly go back to caregiver
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what level separation distress do they show?
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and stranger anxiety?
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what do securely attached chidlren require and accept in reunion stage?
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what % british toddlers classified as secure?
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what happens with insecure-avoidant children at proximity and secure base?
explore freely but don't seek proximity or show secure base behaviour
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what reaction do they show when caregiver leaves?
little to no
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and what happens when caregiver returns?
make little effort to make contact
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what level of stranger anxiety do they show?
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what about reunion stage?
don't require comfort
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what % toddlers classified as insecure-avoidant?
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what about insecure-resistant children at proximity and secure base?
seek greater proximity so explore less
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what level of stranger and separation distress?
huge levels
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but what about reuniting with carer?
resist comfort
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around what % british toddlers classified as this?
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:) support for validity
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** defined attachment type strongly predictive of?
later development
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what do babies assessed secure typically go on to do?
have better outcomes in many areas
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which type is associated with worst outcomes?
insecure-resistant attachment
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what did kokkinos find happened later in childhood?
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and in adulthood ward found?
mental heath problems
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why is this evidence for the validity of the concept?
bc can exp subsequent outcomes
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:) good reliability
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what kind of reliability does it show welll?
inter-rater reliability
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in other words what happens with the different observers watching the same childre?
generally agree on which attachment type to classify them as
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may be because strange situation takes place in what kind of conditions?
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and what are easy to observe?
the behavioural categories
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what did bick et al look at in a team of strange situation observers?
inter-rater reliablilty
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and found attachment type agreement on what % tested babies?
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means we can be confident attachment type in s.s doesn't depend on what?
who's observing them
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:( test may be culture-bound
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how many reasons are there to suggest this?
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1st what are cultural differences in childhood experiences likely to mena?
children respond differently to the strange situation
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and who else behaves fifferent in strange situation?
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why has takahashi noted the test doesn't really work in japan?
bc japanese omthers so rarely separated from babies that there are v high levels separation anxiety
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what did japanese mothers also do at reunion stage?
rush to scoop up baby
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meaning what was hard to observe?
child's response
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:( what does the strange situation measure
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measures child response to anxiety produced by being where?
unfamiliar environment
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however what is the controversial part of the experimetn?
whether the main influence on this anxiety is attached
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what did kagan suggest is a more important influence on bhaviour of childre?
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therefore temperament can be seen as?
confounding variable
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:( at least one more attachment type
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how many did ainsworth make?
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secure / insecure-avoidant / insecure-resistant
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however what did main and solomon point out?
minority of children display atypical attachments that don't fallwithin types
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what is this atypical attachment commonly known as?
disorganised attachment
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what do these children show?
odd mix of resisant and avoidant behaviours
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Card 2


who developed it?


mary ainsworth

Card 3


what was the aim to be able to observe?


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Card 4


- procedure


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Card 5


what kind of observation was it?


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