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In Van Ijzendoorn's meta-analysis, which country was found to have the highest percentage of anxious-avoidant children?
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In Van Ijzendoorn's meta-analysis, which country was found to have the highest percentage of anxious-resistant children?
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In Van Ijzendoorn's meta-analysis, which type of attachment was found to be the most common in all of the countries investigated?
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What is meant by the term 'Interactional Synchrony'
Adults and babies are said to 'synchronised' when they respond simultaneously to sustain communication. Can be defined as 'the coordination of micro-level behaviour'
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What is meant by the term 'Reciprocity'
Caregiver and baby response to one another. Interaction flows both ways between the adult and infant - It involves close attention to each other's verbal signals and facial expressions.
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What is meant by 'imitation' in terms of attachment?
When infants mimic/copy an adults behaviour
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What is sensitive responsiveness?
Refers to when adults attend sensitively to infants comunications.
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What are Schaffer's stages of attachment?
Asocial stage (first few weeks), Indiscriminate attachment (2-7 months), Specific attachment (from 7 months), Multiple attachments (by one year)
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What are 2 strengths of Schaffer and Emersons study into Stages of attachment?
1) External validity - Observations made by parents so babies behaviour unaffected by presence of observers 2) Study carried out longitudinally -better internal validity (no confounding variable of individual differences)
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What are 2 limitations of Schaffer and Emerson's study in to Stages of Attachment?
1) May be a problem with how attachment is assessed - babies distress at individual leaving the room may not signify an attachment 2)Problems with studying the 'asocial' year - difficult to make judgements based on young babies behaviour.
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What studies would you refer to if asked to discuss the fathers role in attachment?
Schaffer and Emerson (1964), Grossman (2002), Field (1978)
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In Schaffer and Emerson's research into attachment,the father was the first sole object of attachment in 3% of cases. In what percent of cases was the father joint first object of attachment?
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In percentage of cases was a secondary attachment formed with the father by 18months?
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What type of study was Grossmann (2002)
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Grossman (2002) carried out a longitudinal study looking at ...
Parents behaviour and it's relationship to the quality of children's attachments into their teens.
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What has research into attachments found to be important about the role of fathers?
Fathers play is more important, the quality of fathers play with infants was related to children's attachments. Suggest that Fathers have a different rolein attachment, one that is more to do with play and stimulation and less to do with nurturing.
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What conclusions can be drawn from Field (1978)
That Fathers can be primary caregivers. Evidence suggests that when fathers do take on the role of primary caregiver they adopt behaviours more typical of mothers
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Briefly describe the study of Field (1978)
Filmed 4-month-old babies and found that primary caregiver fathers, like mothers, spent more time smiling, imitating and holding infants than secondary caregiver fathers.
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What is a key limitation of research into the role of fathers?
Researchers are interested in different research questions. Some want to understand the role of the father as secorndary attachment figures whilst others are more concerned with fathers as primary attachment figures.
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What are the important economic implications of research into the role of the Father?
Mothers feel pressured to stay at home as a result of research that suggests mothers are vital to healthy emotional development. In some families this may not be economically the best solution.
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What does research into the father fail to provide?
A clear answer about the fathers and primary attachments.
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Outline Schaffer's 'Asocial' stage of attachment.
[first few weeks] Baby's behaviour towards inanimate objects and humans are relatively similar. Some preference for familiar adults and babies are happier in the presence of other humans.
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Outline Schaffer's 'Indiscriminate Attachment' stage of attachment
[2-7 months] Babies now display more observable social behaviour, with a preference for people rather than inanimate objects. Babies do not show stranger or separation anxiety and recognise familiar adults. Attachment in indiscriminate.
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Outline Schaffer's 'Specific Attachment' stage of attachment
[from around 7 months] Stranger and separation anxiety when separated from one particular adult - Baby is said to have formed a specific attachment with the primary attachment figure.
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Outline Schaffer's 'Multiple Attachments' stage of attachment
[by 1 year] Secondary attachments with other adults form shortly after the primary. ( IN S&E study, 23% of babies had formed a secondary attachment within a month of a forming a primary attachment.
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What were the findings of Schaffer and Emerson's (1964) study into Stages of Attachment.
50% of babies showed separation anxiety towards a particular adult between 25-32 weeks of age -this primary attachment was usually with the mother. Attachment tended to be to the caregiver who was most interactive and sensitive to infant signals.
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What was the sample for Shaffer & Emerson (1964)
60 Babies from Glasgow, most from working-class families.
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Who proposed the Learning Theory of Attachment?
Dollard and Miller (1950)
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What are the key assumptions of LT as an explanation for attachment?
1) 'Cupboard love' explanation- importance of food in attachment 2) Classical Conditioning - UCS leads to a UCR 3) Operant conditioning - negative & positive reinforcement 4) Drive reduction - attachment is a secondary drive to satisfy the primary
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What are two animal studies that do not support the LT's emphasis on the importance of food in attachment?
1) Lorenz - Geese imprinted geese attachments remained regardless of who fed them. 2) Harlow & Harlow - Monkeys attached to a soft mother surrogate as oppose to mother surrogate who provided milk
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What are 2 limitations of LT?
1) Both animal and human studies that contradict the importance of food 2) LT ignores other factors linked with attachment - e.g reciprocity & interactional synchrony
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What are 2 strengths of LT?
1) Elements of conditioning could still be involved in attachment 2) There is a newer \learning explanation based on SLT - Hay and Vespo (1988) suggests that parents teach children to love them by modelling.
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What are the key assumptions of Bowlby's monotropic theory of attachment?
1) Attachment is innate 2) 1 primary attachment 3)More time spent with the mother-figure is beneficial 4)Babies are born with Social Releasers 5)There is a critical period 6)The 1st attachment forms and internal working model for future relationships
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How long is the critical period proposed by Bowlby?
About 2 Years .A child is maximally sensitive up to the age of 2 years. If an attachment is not formed in this time, he or she will find it much harder to form one later.
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What is meant by 'social releasers'?
Bowlby suggested that babies are born with a set of innate 'cute' behaviours (e.g smiling, cooing, gripping) that encourage attention from adults
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What are 2 strengths of Bowlby's Monotropic theory
1) There is clear evidence to support the existence and value of social releasers - Brazleton et al (1975) 2) There is support or the idea of an internal working model - Bailey et al (2007)
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What are 2 limitations of Bowlby's Monotropic theory
1) Monotropy is socially sensitive because of the implication for mothers' lifestyle 2) Bowlby may have overemphasised the role of attachment -alternative explanation is that a child's temperament is important in the development of social behaviour
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What were the 5 assessment categories in Ainsworth's Strange situation?
1) Proximity seeking 2) Exploration and secure-base behaviour 3) Stranger anxiety 4) Separation anxiety 5) Response to reunion with the caregiver.
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According to The Strange Situation, what behaviour should a well-attached infant display?
Well attached infants stay close to their caregiver, are confident to explore but use their caregiver as a base, display moderate separation and stranger anxiety and requires + accepts comfort from caregiver when reunited
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What type of study is The Strange situation?
It is a controlled observation procedure in a lab.
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What are the seven procedural 'episodes' of the strange situation?
1)Caregiver encourages child to explore 2)Stranger enters & talks to caregiver 3)Caregiver leaves 4) Caregiver returns, Stranger leaves 5) Caregiver leaves child alone 6)Stranger returns 7) Caregiver returns
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What are the 3 main types of attachment (and % in British toddlers) identified by Ainsworth?
Secure attachment (Type B: 60-75%) Insecure - avoident (Type A: 20-25%) Insecure - Resistant (Type C: 3%)
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What are 2 strenghts of Ainsworths Strange Situation?
1) There is predictive validity of attachment types - Attachment type predicts later development e.g secure babies typically have greater success at school 2) Shows very good inter-rate reliability
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What are the limitations of Ainswoths Strange Situation? (3)
1) The strange situation may be culture-bound. 2) Temperament may be a confounding variable 3) There may be other attachment types
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What are the 2 key animal studies into attachment and what were they studying?
1) Lorenz (1952 - Study of imprinting [Geese] 2) Harlow & Harlow (1958) - Studying importance of contact comfort [rhesus monkeys]
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Outline the findings of Lorenz (1952)
Incuabator group followed Lorenz, control group followe the mother. Lorenz identified a critical period in which imprinting needs to take place - if it did not occur within that time, chicks did not attach to the figure. Sexual imprinting also occurs
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Outline the findings of Harlow & Harlow (1958)
Baby monkeys prefered the soft surrogate mother regardless of which dispensed milk - suggests that contact comfort was of more importance than fodd in terms of attachment behaviour. When frightened they sought comfort from the cloth wire mother.
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Outline the findings of Harlow & Harlow (1958) [CONT]
As adults, the moenkys that had been deprived of their real mothers suffered severe consequences: they were more aggressive, less sociable and less skilled at mating than other monkeys. They neglegted their offspring and killed them in some cases.
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Outline the limitations of Lorenz (1952)
1) Generalising findings and conclusions from birds to humans can be problematic. 2) Some of Lorenz's observations and conclusions have been questioned - Guiton (1966) ~ sexual imprinting & rubber gloves
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What is the strength of Lorenz's research into imprinting?
Guiton (1966) found that chicks imprinted on rubber gloves and tried to mate with them as adults, but with experience they learned to mate with their own kind. This provides support for the concept of imprinting.
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Outline the evaluation points for Harlow & Harlow's study into contact comfort
1) Harlows research has important practical applications - helped social workers understand risk factos in child abuse 2) Has however facesd severe critisims for the ethics of this research 3) Limitation - generalising from monkeys to humans.
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Who conducted a meta-analysis study in 1988 looking into the cultural variations in attachment?
Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenburg
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Outline the procedure of Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988)
Looked at the propportions of the 3 attachment types across a range of countries. Found 32 studies of attachment where the Strange Situation had been used, these were conducted in 8 different countries, the data was meta-analysed.
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What was the overall yield of results of the 32 studies in Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg?
1,990 children
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What were the the findings of Van Ijendoorn and Kroonenberg?
Secure attachment was the most common classification in all countries, but ranged from 50% in China to 75% in Britain. Variations between results of studies within the same country were actually 150% greater than those between countries.
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What was found for insecure- resistant attachment in individualist cultures compared to Collectivist?
In individual cultures rates of insecure - resistant were similar to Ainsworths original sample (all under 14%) but this was not true for the collectivist samples from China, Japan and Israel where rates were above 25%
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What is the strenght of Van Ijendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988) ?
1) Strength of meta-analysis is that wou can end up with very large samples
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What are the limitations of Van Ijendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988)?
1) Samples may not be representative of cultures 2) Strange Situation method may be biased to western culture. 3) There is an alternative explanation for the similarities found between cultures. 4) Temperament may be a CV in the Strange Situation.
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What was the aim of Simoneli et al (2014)?
Assessed 76 12-month olds using the SS to see whether the proportion of attachment types still matched previous studies in Italy.
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Outline the procedure of Simoneli et al (2014)?
Assessed 76 12-month olds using the SS. Mothers were reasonably varied in terms of their education levels (Uni degree, high school degree, didn't finish high school) and their professions (employee, professionals, unemployed, part-time)
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What were the findings of Simoneli et al (2014)?
50% secure, 36% insecure - avoidant. This was a lower rate of secure attachment than found in previous studies.
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What conclusions did researchers make from Simoneli et al (2014)?
Suggested the decrease in secure attachments was due to the increase in the number of mothers working long hours and using professional childcare. Cultural changes make dramatic differences in patterns of attachment.
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What were the key assumptions of Bowlby's maternal deprivation theory?
Continued emotional care from mother is essential, separation may lead to maternal deprivation. Critical period of 30 months. deprivation can lead to hindering intellectual development. lack of emotional care may lead to affectinoless psychopathy.
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What is the difference between separation and deprivation?
Separation = child not being physically in the presence of the PCG. Deprivation = losing emotional care a result of the separation. D can be avoided if alternative emotional care is offered, thus S doesn't always cause D
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Name a study supporting the idea that deprivation of maternal care during the critical period can lead to mental retardation and abnormally low IQ
Goldfarb (1947) found lower IQs in children from institutions compared to foster children.
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In Van Ijzendoorn's meta-analysis, which country was found to have the highest percentage of anxious-resistant children?



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In Van Ijzendoorn's meta-analysis, which type of attachment was found to be the most common in all of the countries investigated?


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What is meant by the term 'Interactional Synchrony'


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What is meant by the term 'Reciprocity'


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