arguments based on observation (posteriori)

define teleological
looking at the consequences/end result to judge right and wrong
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define cosmological
study of the universe
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define natural theology
drawing conclusions about god by observing the world and using reason
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define contingent
depending on other things
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define principle of sufficient reason
everything must have a reason to explain it
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define sceptic
someone who wont accept claims with challenging it
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define posteriori argument
arguments which draw conclusions based on observation/experience
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define necessary existence
existence that doesnt depend on anything
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define a priori arguments
arguments which draw conclusions through reason/logic
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define logical fallacy
reasoning which has flaws in its structure
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what are the two examplesof posteriori argument
teleological and cosmological
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what is the basic summary for the teleological argument
demonstrates gods existence through evidential order, complexity, purposeful features,
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which thinker attempts to illustrate this
William Paley - Paley's watch
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what is the summary for the cosmological argument
demonstartes god existence by claiming that universe's existence requires an explanation
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what does paul write to the romans about natural theology
"for since the creation of the world God's invisible qualities"
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what did paul mean from this letter:?
that we could learn about god by just looking around us
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what conclusions can we draw?
god is an intelligent designer
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from where can we draw these conclusions
the intricate nature of plants
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what difficulties does atural theology face
not everybody sees the world with beauty, intelligence and order
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what is the teleological argument also known as?
design arguments
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what is an example of a teleological arguement
looking at a painting and use it to drawconclsuions about the artist
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what is the teleological arguments aim?
to show that the worlds order, beauty, complexity has a designer
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who are the two thinkers within the teleological argument
aquinas and william paley
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what kind of teleological argument did aquinas posit
his five ways
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what kind of argument was the five way teleological argument
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how can we seek valuable truths to aquinas?
by applying reason to the evidence around us
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did he believe in revealed or natural theology?
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who was the five ways written for
christian thinkers (didnt try to persuade others to convert)
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in aquinas fifth way, what did he claim that nature had
order and purpose
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what does the "guiding hand mean in aqiunas' terms
nothing inanimate is purposeful without a guiding hand
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what analogy does he use to illustrate this
an arrow, shooter and target
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what does this analogy mean?
that in a world of purposiveness and inanimate objects we can conclude it was the giding hand of god.
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in what century was there a rise of science and curiousity?
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what is paley's watch analogy
walk on heath, found a watch, we think the watch was made and put there and wasnt naturally formed,
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how does this relate to the world
when we look at human and their intricacy, we dont think we magically formed but that someone made us - divine intelligence orderig us.
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what was the complexity and order of the world evidence of
god existence and gods care
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attention to detail
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what philosophers are involved in the cosmological argument
aquinas and leibniz
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what is the basis of the cosmological argument
the universe cannot account for its own existence
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who was the cismological argument influence by
plato: everything had to be created by something aristotle: there must be an unmoved mover - cause and effect
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what is aquinas' first way?
the unmoved mover
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whats aquinas' second way
the uncaused causer
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whats aquinas' third way
way of contingency
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what does the unmoved mover way focus on
everything is in a state of motion
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what is an exmaple of this
water becomes hotter and evaporates
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what does the unmoved mover basically say
things stay the same before they are moved through force, things are moving, something mustve set it in motion
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aquinas believed it's impossible for everything to be in a sequence of one thing moving another so what is moving things
an unmoved mover set the whole thing off, i
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what did aquinas emphasise in this argument
dependancy rather than going back until there was a beginning
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what is the slight difference between the unmoved mover and the uncaused causer
instead of change in motion its replaced with concept of cause
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what did aquinas believe was impossible?
infinite regress
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what does he conclude if he believes infintie regress is impossible?
there must be a first cause "which we call god"
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what does aquinas magpie off of aristtotle
the four causes
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what does he take from the four causes
the efficient cause
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what is the efficicent cause
the activity that makes something happen.
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what is an example of the efficiet cause
the musician pulling the bow across strings is the effient cause of the music
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what conclusions does aquinas make using aristotles efficient cause
there must be a first efficient cause that caused things in motion - God
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what did aquinas say that the world is full of in his third way?
contingent things that depend on other things to exist
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things are contingent in two ways, how
rely on things to come into extistence, and depend on other factors for the continuation of their existence
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what does the way of contingency suggest
if we accept that everything in universe in contigent then nothing would come into existence
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what is god in this way?
a being that can cause things into existence, isnt contingent - necessary.
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what question does leibniz raise
"why is there something rather than nothing?"
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what does he do to address this question?
formed a cosmological argument based on his principle of sufficient understanding
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what are the three statements within the principle?
if something exists there must be reason, if a statment is true the must be reason why its true, if something happens there must be reason why it happens
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what is the end assumption to the principle of sufficient reason
everything has a reason whether it be known or unknown
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how does leibniz illustrate this?
geometry books
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what does this analogy mean?
"no fact could be true unless there were a sufficient reason as to why is was"
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what does leibniz conclude
god is the out of world reason for things
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how does hume criticise paleys watch
you cantassume that its obvious toeveryone that the world is formly fit like a watch with prurpose
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why does he say this
its obvious to see form and purpose in a watch but not in the world
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why would we pick up the watch i the heath
becase its so unlike the objects which occur in nature
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what did he conclude about paleys watch
to make anaologies between machines and the world isnt right - they are not similar
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how does hume criticise they idea of designer of the order
we cant leap from acknoledging a design and leaping to divine orderer
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whats the problem with acknoledging that there is order in the world
we have no other worlds to compare our order to - whether ours is more ordered than the other
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what is the problem with having no other knowledge about other worlds to compare it to
this is our only experience, we dont know how other worlds are usually made, no benchmark
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what would happen if there were another world to compare our order with
if theres is more orderedthan ours, then we can conclude that our world has little order to begin with
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why did hume believe order were important for the universe
any world would look deisged because without order, and was chaotic then it wouldnt survive
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what does this point support?
it is too weak to suggest that just because of the acknoledgment of order we can conclude that a god designed it
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what is impossible to show#/
that nothing brought things into order except from god
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what is another alternative to order
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who supported this in the future?
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what did darwin say?
that creatures around s are suited to their purpose only by chance, the ones who arent suited didnt survive -natural selection
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how did hume critices the teleological deisgn argument?
he disagreed that it was just simple to look at evidence and work backwards to say that god was the cause. cause and effects isnt as simple as this
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how did hume critisise the nature of the creator
the creator isnt necessarily a christian god
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why did he think this
we live in a finite imperfect world , why asusme there must be a infinite perfect god
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what analogy did he use to illustrate this
kitchen scales , one side hidden
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what was the message of this analogy
we cant know whatcaused something when we only have the effects to look at
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how does this relate to the world
we look at the effects- the world and the cause is hidden from us. to say god, (hidden weight) is loving may be wrong. he could be devious, copied the world. did us with trial and error
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why was jumping and assuming B follows from A as proof logical fallacy to hume
there may be other possible explanations other than god is the cause
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what is naturalistic fallacy and how does hume use it
cosmological arguments can leap from everything in the universe has a reason to the whole universe has a reason
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how does bertand russel follow this notion
just becayse every human being has a mother doesnt mean the human species has a mother
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he questions the cosmological how?
why cant we accept that universe is eternal and the cause of all things in it, why look for a god to explain
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how does hume criticiseleibniz priniciple of sufficient reaosn
we can imagine things coming into excistence without a cause
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how humes point challenged
just because you can imagine it doesnt mean it could follow that in reality it doesnt have a cause
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who illustrates this point
elizabeth anscombe
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what analogy does she use
imagining a rabbit without parents and just existed
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what does this analogy conclude
that you can imagine things just exist but that doesnt mean it's true in real life
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


define cosmological


study of the universe

Card 3


define natural theology


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


define contingent


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


define principle of sufficient reason


Preview of the front of card 5
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