APS126

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  • Created by: Sarah
  • Created on: 27-04-17 08:31
what are ultimate mechanisms of behavior about?
evolutionary hisory, function (adaptove sig)
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whats Tinberrgs 4 questions?
FECD 1) Function- what is the adaptive signficance 2) Evolution (ancestors have it? how evolved/evolutionary history? why evolved like this?) 3) Causation- (stimuli mechanism, casual factors,certain times/situations) 4) development (innate or learnt)
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what is the species of bat that makes perfume?
Sac-winged Saccoptyrex bilinieata
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what creates the smell from the bat?
the mixture he creates has bacteria in it which start multiplying
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what does the bat use to make perfume?
urine (licks cavities), blob of yellow material from penis on chin outs on cavity, secretion from chin
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3 founders of animal behaviour?
Niko Tinbergen, Konrad Lorenz and Karl Von Frisch
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what did Karl Von Frisch discover?
honey bees do waggle dance
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how did he work out that bees were communicating in some way?
coloured petri dishes with sugar, once one bee found it large numbers found it ->communicating location
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where did konrad lorenz study animals?
in captivity
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what was Konrad Lorenz 3 main themes?
1) causation, 2) drives (hunger/reproduction) 3) imprinting
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what were animals Niko Tinbergen studied?
wasps, sticklebacks and gulls
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What was Tinbergens main interests?
FEC 1) Function 2) evolution 3) Causation
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what was Lorenz the pioneer of?
Comparative studies- diff species beh (eg courtship displays between duck species)
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what did Lorenz look at the courtship of ducks for?
to try and infer the evolutionary relationships between them, created phylogenetic tree
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what do 3 spined sticklebacks have?
innate releasing mechanisms
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what is the females innate releasing mechanism of 3 spined stickleback?
a swollen belly as its full of eggs
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what is the males innate releasing mechanism in 3 spined sticklebacks?
ed throat is a signal to other males
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how does a female bat decide if she wants to mate with the male?
she tastes the seromone he made if she likes it she'll mate with him, quality differs between males different smells
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what does MHC stand for? what is it?
major histocompatilbility complex, a set of genes involved in fighting disease
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what does MHC contribute to?
body odour (smell says something about quality)
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how was MHCs used in an experiment with smell?
women smelt mens t shirt with differnetbody odours when they found horrible was because they had the same MHCs as them
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what is another word for develop?
ontogeny
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in chaffinchs and most other birds is the bird song learnt or innate?
partly innate (has a genetic template) and partly learn (has to hear and learn from a tutor to perfect)
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what did w.h.Thorpe look at?
development of bird song
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what experiment did Thorpe do?
reared chaffinchs in auditory isolation (no sound) to see if they still learnt the song
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what was the result of Thorpes experient?
their song was somthing in betwee, sounds like a chaffinch but funny, structure wrong
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what is used to see a birds song? (see in picture what they sound like)
sonogram-
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what were the conclusions from Thorpes study?
Chaffinch has a template in the brain, sound you make is genetic but structure from other chaffinchs singing from a 'song tutor'
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if a chaffinch has been in auditory isolation and then is introduced to other chaffinchs doesit develop a normal song?
no as its past the development stage, there's a specific window called the sensitive phase
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what mechanism causes bird song?
light penetrates chaffinchs skull -> brain releases gnRh -> testes release testosterone -> bird song
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when does the bird sing?
in spring, increased light longer days penetrates skull
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which sex grow gonads in the spring in chafinchs?
both
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what are the differences between M and F song centres in the brain?
males larger RA
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what is the RA (robust archistriatum)?
the part of the brain associated with song
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how do we know that females has the genetics to respond to produce bird song?
in the canary trade females didnt sing so injected with testerosterone to make them sing could respond
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what is the syrinx?
the voice box
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what is the proximate (casual) stimulus for song?
day length
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what 2 hormones control hunger?
1) leptin 2) gherlin
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where is gherlin released from?
stomach
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what is timing of breeding season controlled by?
internal bodily clocks that release hormones at specific times
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costs of testosterone?
reduced immunity+ higher mortality, higher aggression
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what animal did they prove testerone gives reduced surviaval and reduced immuntiy?
uta lizard
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benefits of testosterone?
promotes sperm production, activates sexual behavior
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what is the cause of release of gherlin from the stomach?
lectin levels are low so the hypothalamus release of gherlin from stomach to get hunger
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where is leptin released from?
specialised fat storage cells
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how does more leptin cause less hunger?
more leptin released into blood and by hypothalamus is theres more fat cells so less hunger
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what hormones affect the motivation to mate?
testosterone, oestrogen and progesterone
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when is the female Rhesus monkey most likely to work her hardest to mate (has most motivation)?
when oestrogen is high in estrus cycle, and likeliness of fertilization is high
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what s the difference between hunger and sexual motivation?
hunger restores a physiological balance, sex does not
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who was the pioneer of biological rhythms?
Juergen Aschoff
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what was Juergen Aschoffs concept?
concept that we have a zeitgeber- timekeeper
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what is a zeitgeber?
a naturall occuring phenomenon that rhythmically occurs to regulate the bodys circadian rhythms
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examples of things that have a circadian rhythm?
sleep, temperature, eating
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examples of things with a circalunar rhythm?
menstrual cycle
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examples of circannular rhythms?
reproduction and migration
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what animal shows a circannular rhythm?
hibernating/activeness in ground squirrels, hibernate at certain times of the year
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how can the male fish Gamma Pulex- freshwater amphipod know when the F will mull? (new skin->can be inseminated)
the mull cycle controlled by hormones, M decides which F will mull first as hormones give off signal male can detect
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when people are kept in a bunker what happens to their circadian rhythms?
they drift away from normal rhytms, need a timekeeper
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what happens when shanny fish are put in non-tidal conditions?
loses rhythm of tidal pattern,
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what is the tidal pattern of the shanny fish for?
normally doesn't swim out when no water in rock pools,have a tidal pattern
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what is migration controlled by?
sophisticated clocks
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when do most small birds migrate and why?
in the night, use the stars, body clock accounts for stars moving
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when do big birds like stork migrate and why?
in the day as use the sun
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how is migration an example of evolution?
those that had body clocks to compensate for movements survived, those that didnt went wrong way and died out
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what animal lives underground and doesn't need to know if its day or night?
naked mole rat, it has no patterns of active time
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what new technology is around that allows us to detect small amounts of hormone and increases precision?
radio-immunoassay
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who showed that only when day length coincided with internal rhythm were pititary hormones secreted?
Brian Follet, Philip Mattocks and Dan Farner
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how did they show that you need internal body rhythm to match with day length?
put spots of luminscent (radioactive) paint on needles to see which part of the brain responded to light, where hormone released in quail
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what does how much testosterone the mother puts in the egg decide?
how aggressive the baby bird will fight for food
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why doesthe mum put different amounts of testosterone in different eggs?
first eggs stronger+more competititve, last eggs weaker so put T in last eggs to even out competitiveness
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who had higher testosterone levels married or unmarried men?
unmarried
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lower testosterone gives what with childcare?
fathers are more invested and more sympathetic towards baby crying
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dunncoks are polygnous (sev mates) to increase how much male helps with rearing what does she do?
beats up the other female, Fs very aggressive as have high levels of testosterone when polygnous
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what was trhe experiment done on guinea pigs that shows testosterone controls motivation to mate?
males were castrated, once castrated sex motivation declined, inject testosterone motivation goes back up
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in drosophila males compete for fertilisation how do males stop anyone fertilising her after he does?
he seals ip the female, male stays on female as warning to others, mixes antiacradizziacs with sperm so F doesnt want to be inseminated
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what do male drosophila transfer to females in sex?
sex peptide
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what happens if the M drosophila is unable to transfer the sex peptide to F?
likely to copulate again, as if she hasnt mated just like a virgin fruit fly
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what was Francis Galton (darwins cousin) idea?
intelligence is inherited, lead to eugenics
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what did Oskar Heinroth look at?
comparative studies of duck courtship displays
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what is behavioural ecology?
there's a genetic cause for most behavior and focus is on the adaptive significance
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what is a difference between human and avian vision?
birds can have more than one fovea eg falcons
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what is there a compromise between with eyesight?
sensitivity and resolution
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what is another constraint on bird eye sight?
size of eye, too big then too heavy can't fly
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what do conce cells of birds and reptiles contain?
a coloured oil droplet
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how many cones cells do humans have?
3
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how many cone cells do birds have?
4
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what is the extra cone for in birds?
seeing UV
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why do birds need to see in UV?
urine trails of prey, male quality they're colours give off uv birds glow
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structure of avian cochlea?
sensory epithelium consists of hair cellsand supoorting cells rest on basilar membrane, hair cells from tall (superior margin) to short (inferior)
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what is the anatomical evidence that birds have a sense of smell?
olfactory bulb size andcomplex nasal conchae
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what is dimethyl sulphide released from?
plankton
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who can smell dimethyl sulphide to find plankton for food?
certain albatrosses and petrels
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what did Herman Berkhoudt study?
the sensory apparatus of the mallards bill including taste buds
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do ducks have taste buds on their tongue?
no
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where are ducks taste buds?
inside of upper and lower bill, they surround salivary glands
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how many taste buds do ducks have?
450
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what does the Turkey vulture smell from carcasses?
ethyl mercaptan (methanethiol)
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when Bangg and Hobbs measured olfactory bulbs relative to body size who had the biggest olfactory bulb?
snow petrels
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what makes up the touch receptor in a ducks beak?
grandry and herbst corpuscles
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what is sensitivity in eyesight to birds?
the ability to see in poor light
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what is resoluton?
distinguish between 2 points, how much detail can you see
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what are benefits of living in a social group?
dilution effect lots of you less likely to get preyed on, allogrroomng, shared info+resources
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who are key players in sperm competition?
Geoff parkers and Bob trivers
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what is behavioural ecology?
focus on function/adaptive significance on individual selection point
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who is the father of sperm competition?
Geoff Parkers
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what is sperm competition?
competition between the ejaculates of two or more males for the ova of a single female
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what did darwin assume about sexual selection?
assumed monogamy, that it was about mate acquisition only
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what did geoff parker look at?
dung flies
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what did geoff parker saw in dungflies?
a) females yellow dungflies mate with more than one male b) males guarded females they had mated with
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what has to be true for altruistic behaviour to occur?
rB > C
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what is the sociobiology debate?
should we apply natural selection to human behaviour? eg eugenics, is human beh determined by genes?
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where is testosterone produced?
leydig cells
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role for T?
secondary sex charactersitics, associated with aggressive interactions
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higher levels of endogenoues T are more likely to make people what?
dominant/aggressive
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what happens after you have been aggressive?
T levels rise
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is T a cause of aggression
it is often not the cause but the consqeuence of aggression
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what is priming in relation to T?
T increases anticipation of aggression
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what is feedback of T?
T increases after aggressive incidents
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what is the challenge hypothesis?
are changes in blood T a result of aggression, hormonal basis
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in snakes losers of competitive bouts are more likely to have what?
elevated levels of the stress hormone- corticosterone
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what did they use to test the challenge hypothesis?
moved birds out, empty territory, put next to n birds need to define territory boundaries therefore aggressive, non-n control
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what is the adaptive significance of aggression?
dominance
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how is dominance adaptively significant?
success in aggressive interactions linked to dominance = can mate with F
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what appeareance makes a person look more dominant why?
squarer jaw, more testosterone
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how is it proved that T is costly?
castrates live 12 years longer, people with high T (type As) die younger from coronary heart disease
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what is a type a person?
has higher levels of T
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when are the costs of T seen?
Only when type As are unsuccessful
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having high T is what?
a higher risk but potentially greater benefit
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why is there variation in T when it carries benefits for T?
its costly
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where is male-male combat seen for dominance?
red deer
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what is another adaptive signifance of aggression other than dominance?
sexual cannabalism, siblicide and infanticide
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why is infantcide adaptively significant?
males get new group gets rid of all infants so no competition for his offspring
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why is sexual cannabalism adaptively significant?
mantis produce 30% more eggs if she eats him but not adaptive for M
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is F or meale bigger in mantis?
Female
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why is siblicide a strategy adaptive for mother and sibling?
mother lays 2 eggs, if food scarce mroe likely that 1 offspring will survive as 1 can eat the other
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what is the proximate basis of aggression?
T and corticosterone (stress hormone) important in control, both released after aggressive interactions, feedback loops
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adaptive explanations for aggression?
dominance (access to resources and mates) within a social species, 2) conflict is risky, liley to mean aggressors have high or low fitness
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what are 4 examples of aggression and in what species?
1) male-male combats- red deer 2) sexual cannabalism- praying mantis 3) siblicide- booted eagle 4) infanticide- Hanuman Langur
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what is anisomagy?
the gametes are not the same
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what gender has more reproductive potential?
males
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what is the operational sex-ratio biased towards?
operational sex-ratio is male biased
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when can males mate again sooner than females?
if internal fertilisation (birds) more prounounced in internal dev (mammals)
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what is Parental Investment?
the amount of resources devoteds ot a particular offspring
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who came up with parental investment?
robert trivers
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what is the tradeoff in parental investment?
investment in one offspring reduces that avaliable for other offspring
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where is there sex role reversal in parental investment?
dance flies (provides huge sperm structure gift) + seahorses male carrys eggs
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where is it vey female biased (Fs compete for males)?
jacana- Fs re larger and compete
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where is it male biased where showy males and choosy Fs?
Peafowl (peacock)
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what is pre copulatory (behavioru and morphology) sexual selection on?
intrasexual competition and intersexual mate choice
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what is postcopulatory (on sperm) sexual selection?
cryptic F choice and sperm competition
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what animal has bigger testes as Fs promiscius so investment in testes gives largest chance of fertilisation?
chimps
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in what animal is sexual selection only pre-copulatory why?
gorillas, they dont need sperm compettion onlyalpha mates
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what happens if theres a lot of postcopulatory sexual selection
evolve bigger testes
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what species is there suicidal sex?
marsupial insetivores
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what does semelparity mean?
males die off completely after mating
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why do 20% of insectivorous marsupial species die off completely because of what?
synchronised immune system collapse
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what do marisupials rely on for sperm? why?
sperm stores, testes disintegrate, T energetically costly to produce
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why are marsupials not aggresive to each other?
no competion
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where do marsupial live?
in temperate foest with synchronous food peak
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how many times does a marsupial produce a litter?
one litter per year
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why do marsupial males have programmed reproductive suicide? and shut down sperm?
remove themselves so no competition for offspring for resources, all about sperm competition as Fs promiscious, shut down sperm as energetically costly to produce
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what are the key concepts in behaviorual ecology (adaption of behaiorur)?
kin selection/inclusive fitness, parental investmen, sexual selection
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why do males have wider horns?
males fight each other
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what does the darwins beatle do for pre-copulatory sexual selection
throws opponent off tree so only largest jaws get to top of tree and copulate
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stork eye fly stork disadvatage?
long eye stalks cant fly away from predators
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why do stork eyed flies have stalks?
males aggregate togetherfor females to visit, males with longest eye stalks mate only best males produce long stalks
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what is mate choice?
intersexual
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what is male fighting against male?
intrasexual selection
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what type of mating is more common?
assortative, non-random
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what is dissassortative mating?
prefer partners with a different rather than similar phenotype
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what are examples of dissassortative matings?
MHCs-increase variation, genetic disease, immunity, more genetic variation more immunity
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what is non-random mating what does it drive?
characteristics eg number, quality or phenotypic traits of mating partners, drives evolution of sexually selected traits
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what might non-random mating be driven by ?
1) intrasexual(Within gender) competition 2) mate chouice
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example of intrasexual competition?
red deers compete, largest and most competitive males mate with females
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what is assortative mating?
where indiciduals with similar traits mate with each other
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how could assortative mating drive formation of new species?
reproductively isolated, genetically similar then population characterisitcs diverge
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how may assortative mating arise?
competition (only bets quality male wins then only most competitive females mate with him) or choice (actively choice one with similar traits)
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what animal is solidarity?
moose
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what are costs of social beh?
parasitisim, competition, visible to predators, infanticide
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benefits of social groups?
foraging food resources+info shared,lower per indiv chance of being predated (dilution effect), better defence, communal care
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what was Bekoff and Bergers definition of play?
Play is all motor activity performed after birth that appears to be purposeless in which motorpatterns from other contexts are used+ modified form and altered temporal sequencing
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what is 2 probs wigth definition of play?
1) modified motor patterns eg lion pacing for boredom or frustration- is it play? 2) not clear what purposeless nmneeds may just appear purposeless
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why would a behaviour appear purposeless?
1) true benefit doesn't occur until later 2) benefits may be multile and cofounding 3) observer fails to see the benefit eg function of play
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why can't play be purposeless, whats the costs of play?
there's reduced vigilance- increased predatibility, energy consumption and risk of injury, evolution gets rid of costly behs not aaptive
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how many pup seals were attacked whilst playing?
85%
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what is an example of there being differences between how much species play?
rats and mice
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who studied play in meerkats?
lynda sharpe
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why is it difficult to study meerkats for play?
only spend 6% of their awake time playing
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how did lynda sharpe test them?
put coloured rings on their tails as when they play it was chaos
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what ideas did lynda sharpe test with meerkats?
a) subsquent fighting access (improves fighting ability) b) reduce aggression c) enhances social cohesion d) dispersal partnerships- same colonies
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which of them ideas were right?
none
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what type of birds love playing?
carvidae- crows
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what is an ethogram?
complete inventroy of animals actions
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advantage and disadvantage of ethograms?
informative but not about function
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what are the 3 types of play?
1) object play 2) locomotor play 3) social play
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what does object play need to be distinguished form?
object exploration
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why is object play more common in juveniles?
more free time or practice for later life
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who watched ravens and saw all the objects they played with?
Bernd Heinsfich
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what did Bernd Heinsfick find?
young interested in novel items and particulary edible items so may play to be able to distinguish what they can eat?
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why would predators object play?
practice for hunting
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2 examples of object play y predators?
1) playing with prey eg cats with rodents 2) kingfishers and gulls catch and drop things like sticks
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what is locomotor play 2 main hypotheses?
1) better understanding of land-spatial awareness 2) dev motor skills and exercise (most likely)
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what is the development of motor skills hypothesis?
training motor neurons in the brain, formation of synapses (synaptogenesis)
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what is the evidence of synaptogenesis?
synaptogenesis peaks in mouse cerebllum during play but corrlation not causation
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3 reasons for social play?
1) enhances physical skills (fighting) eg bears, males fight more so more play in males b) facitilates long term relationships c) enhances cognitive skills- learning experience eg becoming dominant
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what is the example of social play facitilitating long term relationships?
male lions form coalitions help each other
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how in social play- rough and tuble seen in many mamkmals do they know its not fighting?
facial expressions
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what is the equivalent facial expressions in gorillas?
1) mouth open+teeth covered 2) mouth open and teeth visible (reassurance)
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what are other social play signals?
rats napes of neck, dogs whole range of social sigs
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why do animals play fair in play?
benefits of cheating are low, costs: exclusion from the group are long lasting
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why is play an evolutionary paradox?
natural selection should get rid of costly not significant behaviour so must have benefits
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what benefit do beldings ground squirrels have to playing?
fitness benefits more offspring
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what animal did they show was more likely to survive if they play?
american brown bear
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what was Marek Spinkastheory for the function of play?
play creates new situation and enables animals to deal better with unexpected events later in life
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evidence for marek spinkas theory?
a) rats deprive of play respond with more stress to the unexpected b) dominat/subordinate roles change in play can adapt c) (for theory to be true) play should affect brain building connections
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what is the problem with play?
deprive them of play you deprive them of other things eg exploring environment-logistics and ethics, difficult to design experiments for function of play
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what is one of the main ways psychologists measure personality?
continum spectrum of introvert extrovert
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what are extroverts?
energised by the outside world, thrive on external stimulation, breath of ideas
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what are introverts?
energisd by internal, deep thinking and emotions, think deeply
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what is whether you're an introvert or extrovert determined by?
brain chemistry
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how do pesychologists measure personality?
axes or constructs
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what axes and constructs are there?
aggression, openess, obedience, dominance, dependenness and agreeableness
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what happened in milgram?
genuinely believed they were giving electric shocks 65% went to lethal levels
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in animals personality is defined as?
non-random individual behavioural specialisations
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who showed monkeys needed maternal affection to dev normally?
Harry Halow
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how do we know humans need a mothers affection?
roman orphans that were kept in very poor conditions had problems when they were older
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genetic differences can be studied by what?
twins
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if personality is geentically determined then there should be what?
a perfect correlation in personality score for monozigotic twins
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what do twin studies show with personality?
environmental and genetic causes personality
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is the hippocampus larger in Ms or Fs?
males usually
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is hippocampal size a sex based trait?
no it depends on how selection has operated
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what animal has females have bigger hippocampus volumes?
brown headed cow birds
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why would males need a larger hippocampus
males defend larger terroties
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why do brown headed cow birds Fs have bigger hippocampus's?
Bigger selection pressure to remember there way around the environment, have to find nests breed parastic lifestyle
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primates and what are used to study personality?
cuttlefish, birds and insects
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what traits do animals show differences in personality?
exploration, aggression and risk taking
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what was studied into slow and fast personality types?
great ****
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do fast or slow birds birds do better if food is scarce?
fast
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if food is abundant do fast or slow great **** do better?
slow as less energitically costly to be slow
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what kind of brain pathways do introverts have?
longer acetylcholine pathway
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what definition of personality is used by peope studying animal behaviour?
non -random individual behavioural specilisations
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what are some alternative terms for persoanlity?
behavioural syndroms, coping styles, axes and constructs
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what are 2 environmental effects on personality?
1) birth order 2) social contact
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how many of the 23 first astronauts into space were first borns?
21
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what does birth order depend on the context of?
socioeconomic factors and family size
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what are first borns usuallY?
good boy/girl niche. seeks approval from authority, conscientipus, responsible, leaders
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what are last born traits usually?
social, rebellious, outgoing, spoiled, fight for attention
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what did Harry Harlow investigate?
the effects of social deprivation on young monkeys using surrogatee mthers (model mothers made of cloth or wire)
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what is John Bowlb's attachment theory?
children come into the world biologically pre-programmed to form attachments with others as this will help them to suvive
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what part of the hypothalamus is 2-3 times larger in males than women? what does it control?
INAH-3, conrols sexual behaviour
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what is 10% larger in womens brains?
SG (in prefrontal cortex)
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what is the SG in the prefrontal cortex associated with?
social cognition
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what did Sapolskys do?
became part of a baboon troop lived with them and looked at their personalities
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what did sapolsky's work show?
the link between personality, social status and physiological stress
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what are characteristics of the fast great ****?
bold, aggressive, unphased by novel changes
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in animal behaviour what is personality also reffered to?
coping styles
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what was the trais of the slow great ****?
cautious about novel things, shy and reserved
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who studied the great **** slow or fast personality?
Niels Dingemanse
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early studies of intelligene on chickens where inappropriate why?
relied on counting, colour etc they do not need to be adapted to that
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was it the hippocampus seen as?
a cognitive map, a neural representation of the environment
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what did maguire look at?
london taxi drivers and the knowledge- after trained bigger hippocampus
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why would you expect differences in the brain of Ms and Fs?
different strategies of reproductive success
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hippocampal volume depends on what?
adaptive selection pressire, depends on behaviour and ecology
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what did they find cockrels are very intelligent for?
distinguishing whether females are fertile or infertile
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what do slow and fast great **** vary in?
explorative behaviour
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how did introverts and extroverts persist?
both can be selected for, extroverts: lots of kids, less survive till repro age, introverts: less but survive to repro age
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what do you need to think about when assesing intelligence of an animal?
prior experience + oppurtuinites of the animal, expr removed confounding factors-observer cues and anthropodism
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what is berhaviour usually?
an interaction between genetics and environmental
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what are very genetically determined behaviour?
simple mechanisms: taxes
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what are taxes?
fixed action patterns that are species specific, occupy a certain amount of time, repeatable, sterotyped
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what is a single gene example?
mice FosB
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what is FosB for?
maternal behaviour- will keep pups close together
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what happens in the FosB KO?
mice ignores its pups no maternal care
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what is an example of multiple genes?
a ruff phiilomachus pugnax
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what do different ruffs have?
different mating strategies and defend ground differently
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what ruff philomachus pugnax is female like?
faeder
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what is the black ruff called
a resident
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what is the ancestoral form, thats homozygous and no inversion of the ruff p[hilomach pugnax?
resident
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what does the satellite genetics?
1 double inversion and one copy of ancestral form (inversion within an inversion)
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what is lethal in ruff philomachus pugnax?
any combinations of the 2 inversions
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what has a genetic basis in great ****?
personality- bold or shy
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what study did they do on the parus major great ***?
provide a pedigree, knew all parents looked at genetics of personality bold or shy
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where was the study on parus major done?
wytham woods , oxford long term study
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what are animal studies used to estimate?
genetic component of phenotypic variation- genetic correlations and heratibilaties
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the further the bird has to migrate the what?
the more migratory restlessness
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What animal did they do migratory studies on?
blackcap sylvia atricapilla
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what is used to study migratory intensity and direction of blackcaps?
emlen funnel
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what happened when they paired birds from germany and hungary made a hybrid?
offspring in the middle of migratory restless -> suggests trait inherited
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what politician though higher class kids had higher IQs and made up figures to support 11+?
Cyril Burt
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what did the nature-nurture debate come into in politics?
cyril burt 11+
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they looked at verbal ability between parents and twins what showed the highest correlations?
monozygotic twins
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they looked at verbal ability between parents and twins what showed the lowest correlations?
parents with adopted kids (unrelasted)
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what is ecology?
focuses on adaptive significance assumes genetic basis
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who popularised ecology? what book?
richard dawkins- the selfish gene
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who did lorenz steal ideas from and did comparitive studies of duck displays?
Oskar Heinroth
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what is an example in sterlings of genetics?
flying closer together in flock when predator present- is a genetic instinct
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why do sterlings fly closer together?
avoid predation, one less likely to be singled out
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what book did Francis Dalton write what did this suggest?
hereditary genius- intelligence is inherited
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what did Francis Galton push?
eugenics- thought if let working class breed intelligence in population would go down
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what is the proximate mechanism for bees changing age related behaviours?
ethyl oleate
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what is ethyl oleate?
a fatty acid
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who produces ethyl oleate? why?
older honeybees(foragers) it inhibits the younger bees from becoming foragers
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what happens if you add a lot of older bees?
less younger bees become foragers
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what happens if you *** a small amount of oldeer bees?
more younger bees become foragers
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who has higheer conc juvenile hormone? why?
older bees to be foragers
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what does juvenile hormone secretion depend on?
controlled by genes but whether secreted depends on environment
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where is ethyl oleate stored?
bag in oesophagys
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whatis a key feature of behavioural development?
learning eg habituation
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what environental factos affect the gene and clock to bee behaviour?
phermomones
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what hormones affect the genes and clock in honeybuides?
juvenile hormone and ethyl oleate
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what is released by who when you shake a behhive?
pheromones by queen bee or workers
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what is key feature of imprinting?
phase sensitive learning
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what are the 2 types of associative learning?
classical conditioning and operant conditioning
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what are 2 the types of non associative learning?
habituation, sensitisation
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what was the fetal origin hypothesis?
what we experience as a fetus can have life-long effects
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wo came up with the fetal origins hypothesis?
David Barker
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what factors influence you in the womb?
thalidomide, fetal alchol syndrome, smoking, poor diet/obesity
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what is the thrifty phenotyoe?
poor fetal nutrition= smaller offspring, idea is adapted to low food environment as might be short growing up adaptive to produce small offspring that requiresd less food
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why do animal industry keep growing animals on low diet until just before market?
normal food -> rapid catch ip growth but less food
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what animal did they do exps with and reared some on a high or low diet?
zebra finches
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what happened to the zebra finch when they were on a high pro compared to low protein diet?
no differrence in adult male phenotype- no cost?
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what was the explanation of this?
low pro lived shorter lives, but zebra finches live a short life, with low food they use the avaliable energy to dev breeding plumage+die young
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what does catch up growth use a lot less of?
energy, as food abundant after none -> catch up growth
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what did they expect to find with low protein zebra finches?
that they'd have less coloured beaks but no differences
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calves of red deer born in spring have what?
a low birth weight
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what is the conequence of a low birth weight?
higher mortality
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the ow birth weight calves that survive produce what?
lower birth weight offsprings themselves
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what is red deer an example of?
thrifty phenotype
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in rural gambias what determines survival (impacts it)?
birth season- good or bad, harvest or hungry season
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when is there greater survival among rural gambians?
if born in the harvest season- abundant food
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what does this effect on season have important implications for?
for humans- can save premature babies
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females with 2 males surrounding her in the womb, rather than a F surrounded by other F embryos are what?
more agressivve 2M females than 0M females
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what impacts the way we behave in later life?
things we experiencde as a fetus, and who we're next to as an embryo
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what does experiencing things differently before birth change for the 2M Fs compared to 0M Fs?
adult behaviour and subsequent survial and reproductive success
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women who had a twin brother in the womb had less chance of what?
lower chance of getting married and having children
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how did they know about fetal hormones and humans with M+F twins?
data from Finnish families (from parish records) from 1700s and 1800s
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why do Fs next to 2M become more many?
T leaks across cells into neughbouring foetuses
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who came up with the definition of sperm competition? (the faher of sperm competition)
Geoff Parker
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what is the sperm competition defintion ?
the competion between 2 or more male ejaculates to fertilise one ova
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when did sperm comp come about?
1960s when adaptive significance became important
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what did darwin wrongly assume about sexual selection?
that sexual selection has ceased once aquired a mate
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what did Geoff parker recognise? in what?
Dungflies, Fs mated with many Ms before laying their eggs
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what will compete in male dungflies?
sperm competition
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why were people sceptical about sperm competition?
assued birds etc where monogamous
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when would extra pair matings have to happen for them to be adaptive?
when fertilisation could occur
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why was it difficult to find out if extra pair matings were adaptive?
birds could store sperm, not sure when fert did occur
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when did most extra pair matings and males guarding their partners take place?
2 weeks before egg laying
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sperm competition was one of the first to branch out and include what?
mechanistic aspects
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how did they use to assess paternity before fingerprinting?
genetic plummage and blood groups
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is extra pair matings adaptive for Ms?
yes more offspring
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is extra pair mating adaptive for Fs?
not sure yet, no consensus
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what is the female version of sperm competiotion/ post copulatory sexual selection
crytic female choice
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why cryptic?
happens inside F
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why would most F selection be pr-copulatory?
most can choice their parteners
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what animal is there forced extra pair matings?
ducks
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what did they find in F gentalia in duck?
evolution of gentila to give control over who fertilises her, blind alleys and spirals, spirals can twist bum up so penis doesn't go anywhere
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what duck has a massive pensis (spiral phallus)?
the argentine lake duck
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what was the conclusion on evolution of F and M ducks?
strong evidence in F anatomy that genatalia has co-evolved with males in response to post-copulatory sexual selection
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as phallus (penis) length in duck gets bigger what happens to the number of spirals and pouches?
they increase, positive correlaion
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what is individual selection?
the adaptive significance of behaviour- Tinbergens question about function
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what kind of selection is sperm competition?
post copulatory sexual selection
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what was darwins view about sexual selection?
was only about mate acquisition, assumed monogamy
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what did susan smith study?
black capped chickadees- recorded everything she saw
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what did susan smith see in black capped chickadees?
14 extra pair matings, 13/14 was with a higher quality male
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what could be some possible benefits of F promiscuity?
1) genetic upgrade 2) insurance of fertility
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what can be used as a paternity marker in zebra finches? why?
genetic plummage markers, as fawn phenotype is a sex-linked recessive
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so if you have a fawn male with a awn female what will the offspring be?
fawn
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with grey male gives what offspring?
grey offspring
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is monogamy common?
no, only in mute swans
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what molecular methods are used in wild zebra finches in ustralia
multi locus DNA fingerprinting
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what did bob trivers look at?
how individuals selected rather than group selection
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how long is sperm in birds (guillemots) viable for?
3 months
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why would guillemots extra pair mate?
maximises the num of offspring as only one egg produced each year
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where does fertilisation take place in birds/guillemots?
infundibulum
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where are sperm storage tubes?
in the UVJ and vagina
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when is the fertile period for the guillemot bird?
approximately 10 days before she lays the egg
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how short/long can sperm be stored for?
shortest: 6 days longest: 3 months
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when does the guillemot F stay away from the colony so egg doesn't get crushed when forming?
4 days before laying egg
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where are sperm tubules?
in UVJ
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when did extra pair matings happen in guillemots?
before she laid eggs not after
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what 2 things can communication use?
1) cues 2) signals
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whats an example fo a cue?
body heat and pheromones attract mosquio
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whats a signal?
something thats adapted visual display by peacock causes response
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what is communication?
transfer of communication from signaller to a receiver
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what types of signals involves depend on what?
1) ecological context 2) sensory bias 3) costs and benefits 4) evolutionary history and constraint
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what is an example of communication using multiple sensory modalities to convey a message?
chicks begging for food
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what did darwin do with facial expressions?
applied electrical currents to different parts of face -> 60 diff facial exprs ased family membres what expressions they were but only some universal facial expression
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what are the different sensory modalities used in communication?
1) chemical communication 2) electrical signals 3) acoustic 4) visual 5) mechanicl
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what is an exampleof acoustic communcation?
talking or bird song language
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whats an example of chemical communication?
pheromones in ant trails, stronger the pheromone trail the better and bigger the food source, sig to ants where they're going to adjust pheromone
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what kind ofcommunication is monkeys allogrooming (strengthens social bond), birds preening, and humans kissing?
mechanical communication
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what is an example of electrical communication? (eels dont count as for predation!)
fish use electric weak signals to communicate eg sexual behaviour
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what does the evolutionary history and constraint mean?
what is it capable of doing? what pre-existing behaviours can be adapted to produce signals
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what animal adapted a pre-existing behaviour?
northern gannetts courtship ritual has a sterotypical structure, though to evolved form pre-fligh intention movement
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what does the northern gannetts adapting the pre-flight intention movement to a courtship ritual suggest?
courtship beh evolved from pre-flight intention movement, evolutionary history
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what is an example of evolutionary history affecting signals?
pelecaniformes- species in this order have more simular courtship postures when they are closely related
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what do pelformes courtship postures being more similar when related suggest?
constraint to evolution of beh
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why is the ecological context important on the evolution of signals?
decides whats appropriate, animals in dark no point in visual sigs
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what is an example in a way an animal has changed according to the ecological contetxt (had fine scale selection on design of sigs)?
bird song in urban areas with noise pollution are higher pitched than those in rural areas
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what 2 types of crabs were used to look at sensory bias in evolution of sigs?
music fiddler crab (Uca musica) + narrow fingered fiddler crab (Uca stendoctylus)
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what crab built hoods and sand mounds?
muscial fiddler crabs
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how did they show both species of crab has a sensory bias towards Ms that made hoods??
muscial fiddler crab builds mounds, narrow fingered crab doesn't, in both the Fs preder those who build hoods (+larger ones), narrow fingered preferred Ms with hoods even tho not exposed to them!
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what did John Christy conclude about the crabs?
female fiddler crabs of both species are attracted to hood structures built by male U.muusic, they're attracted to any promient structure
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what does johns conclusion suggets?
female fiddler crabs have a pre-existing sensory bias that makes them atractted to hoods
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what are the 3 ideas about where sensory biases come from?
random drift, interest in new promient feature, adaptive basis
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what is the evidence for an adaptive basis of the F crab bias?
F fiddler crabs are attracted to hoods even when aren't sexually receptive, help with predation
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what do guppies have variations in?
colours and spots
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what are the benefits having more spots?
more attractive, more likely to get a mate
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what are the costs of having spots?
predation more easily seen
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what is an example of costs and benefits in signal evolution?
guppies- spots
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who did an experiment with 10 ponds and guppies?
John Endler
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what did the ponds have in them?
4 ith predatory cichlid, 4 with smaller harmful fish, 2 with nothing just guppies
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what happened to the number of spots in the ponds with the cichlid (predator)?
they decline
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what happened in the ponds with no cichlid?
spots increased
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there is often conflict between signallers and receivers but what may this ultimately lead to?
stable honest signalswith occasional transient deception
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what is the coevolutionary arms race a cycle of?
manipulation [deception] (signaller) -> resistance in receiver [ignores]
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why does it usually end in stable honestly?
the receivers adaptively select to ignore cues until they are honest, manipulation only adaptive for sigs but unstable
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2 reasons why you wouldn't get stable honest sigs?
1) receiver hasnt evolved resistance yet(deception transient arms race ongoing) 2) deception stable at low frequencies if it is beneficial to receiver
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what are the 4 influences on evolution each with a animal example
1) costs and benefits (guppies) 2) sensory bias- music fiddler crab, narrow fingered fiddler crab 3) ecological contex- birds in urban areas more high pitched 4) evolutionary history- northern gannets pre flight intention, constraint- peleicaniforme
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what birds suffer from blood sucking parasites in their nests?
Cliff swallows
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what is the cost as living as a large group for cliff swallows?
mmore parasites per nest
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what are the 4 benefits for group living?
1) dilution effect- less likely 1 singled for predation 2) improved foraging efficiency 3) improve defence of resources+shared info +resources 4) communal care or offspring
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what are the costs to group living?
1) disease spreads and parasite suscebtibiity 2) stand out to predators 3) conspecifics may kill off offspring 4) more competition for resources food and mates
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what effect on the offspring does blood sucking parasites have?
slower growing offspring
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who fumigated nests to see whether parasites were what impaired chick growth?
Charles and May Brown
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what did May and Charles bron find?
chick growth was not impaired, growth improved with no parasites -> therefore causation was parasites
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how to guillemot in northern hemisphere live and breed/bring up a baby?
breed at higher densitites than any other bird, 70 stand in metre square, with a sheer drop down to see, live+breed
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how many guillemots are there per m^2?
70
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why do guillemots breed at such high densities (whats adaptive sig of close proximity)?
less likely for predators (seagulls) to get any one egg, so more breeding success high densities- ver 80% success, low densities- 20%, medium densities- 50% breeding success
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why does breeding success increase with group density?
lesss vnerable to predators, more neghbouts = greater safety from predatory gulls, dilutoon effect 2) less succesful getting eggs because proect each other
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who is more vunerable to predation in guillemots?
early and late layers
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why do guilemots allopreen- 2 hypotheses?
1) remove parasite burden 2) reduces stress important for tightly packed conditions
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up to how many sociable weavers will live together in a huge communal nest?
500
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why is thatch maintenance costly?
it requires time and effort
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what are altrustic benefits?
indirect benefits basically no gain for self, just nice
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what could be the possible direct (selfish) fitness benefits of socialable weavers thatch building?
mate attraction, own nesting success, avoid punsihment
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what indirect fitness could be from building thatches?
helping relatives nesting success
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if buildng the thatch for mate aquuistion who would be building the nest?
only young, unpaired birds BUT most done by older birds
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why would thatch building not be for own nesting success?
would be unstable, as no benefit to wrking hard, more benefit to let others work harder
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who would be doing the building if it was for relatives nesting success?
males should contribute more as they are more related to the colony as they do not migrate
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89% of the thatch building was done by who?
older males
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what showed that this 89% was due to relatives nesting success?
more liely to build when they were more closely related to neughbours
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what does the thatch building support?
indirect benefits drive thatch building behaviour
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who are more likely to invest in thatch building and why?
those with close relatives as neighbouts, gain direct and indirect benefits.
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are there direct benefits of thatch building? why not enough?
yes but not enoguh to drive building behaviour as would favour freeloaders who gained by letting others work
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why do animals live in groups?
benefits outweigh the costs
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what is hamiltons theory?
inclusive fitness/kin selection
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what does the kin selection/inclusive fitness theory show?
how altrustic behaviour can evolve in social interations if the altruistic and beneficiary are related
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what was likely to be important in thatch building?
indirect kin selected benefits
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why wpud a female pair with a pauir with a male who has already paired?
if he provides access to goodenough resources that it outweighs having to share them with another wman
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what model looks at polygyny and whether a female would choose to share?
poygyny threshold model
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who came ot with the polygyn threshold model
Monique Borgerhoff-Mulders
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what it the figure for western world extra pair paternityin socially monogmaous people? what was it overestimated at before?
recent: 1-2%, before: 10%
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what is likely to mean EPCs rarely results in offspring?
contraception
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despite lack of contracepton traditional soticieites suggests historal levels of extra pair paternities being what?
1-2%
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where is there an example of polyandry why?
in Tibet, when food is scarce need 3 people
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how does polygynandry resilt?
conflict over the optimum mating system for males and females
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out of 849 different societies what percentage was polygyn?
83%
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what species shows polygynandry?
birds- dunncocks
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who came up with a definition of play?
Bekoff and Byers
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what was their defintion of play?
play is all motor activity performed postantally which appears purposeless, motor patterns form other contexts modified forms+altered temporal sequencing
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how many sea lions get predated on while playing?
85%
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what are the costs of play?
reduced vigiliance, energy, increased predation, risk of injury
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play appears purposeless why might it not be?
1) may not see immediate benefit/not decipher 2) benefits may not be shown till later 3) benefits may be multiple and confounded
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what age group usually plays?
juveniles
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what animals mammals play?
esp carnivores, rodents and ungulates
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what does play vary between? example?
species, young rats play,young mice dont
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what member of birds is particularly known for playing?
corvidae
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hat did darwin think of play?
its related to happiness and fun but can't measure that
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what showed that locomotor play may be to provide exercise and develop motor skills? why cautious?
cerwebellar synaptiogensis formation in mice but correation not caue
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hypotheses for social play?
1)facilitates long term relationships 2)enhances cogntiive skills-what opponent do next 3) enhance physical skills-stronger
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what is another exoression for play fighting?
rough and tumble play
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whose what the attachment theory?
John Bowbys
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what are 2 examples of corvid behavioyur?
1) tool use in new caledonian crows 2) food caching behaviour in westeern scrub jays
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what does corvudae mean?
crow family
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what is tool use in crows a good indication of?
physical cognition
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who inthe lecture came up with the defintiin of tool use?
Jane Goodal
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what was Jane Goodalls deintion of tool use?
the use of an external evironmental as a functional extension of the mouth or beak, hand or claw in the attainment of an immediate goal
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what did jane goodall study?
chimpanzees
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what creatures tool use?
birds, bears, smarine animals, onkeys, spiders
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does tool use = intelligence?
NO
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what can tool use reveal?
physcial cognition
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what is folk physics?
the understaning of forces and the world and the environemtn you're in
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what do chimpanzees have with tools?
tool cultures, tool sets, diversity of tools and they manufacture toold!
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whrre are new caledonian crows from?
Gondwanan
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what is high on Gonwadan?
high endemism
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what is the climate like in Gnwadan?
tropical dense forests
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what is endemism?
species being specific to a geographical location
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why did they choose new caledonian crows to look at tool use?
population wide use+manufacture, diversity of tool types + poss cultural influcnces on tool making
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how many new caledonian crows did they capture?
20 wild caught and 4 hand reared
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what is the advantgae to captive studies?
controlled environment to study behaviour less confounding factors
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what is the problem with captive studies?
low ecological validity and low sample size
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who did the experiments on caledonian crows?
Kacelnik and Weir
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what were they looking at in the new caledonian crows to see if they had an advanced cognition?
flexibility, planning, development, insight, ability to learn
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what experiment did they do to see development of tool use (genetic or env?)?
had 4 hand reared, 2 in each group one group had tool demonstrations by a human foster parent and the other no rtool demonstartions
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what did the development experiment show? what results?
both groups developed tool use around the same time, but demonstartoion ones refined and much quicker better at it
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what conclusions came from that?
tool use is genetic but should be refined by learning
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how did they see if crows planned their behaviour?
saw if they'd use a sequence of tools when trying to get food out of a tube with different siz sticks
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what was the conditions in the plannin experiment?
primary, secondary any, secondary long, tertiary condition
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how many birds suceeded with the plan food task? how many on their first trial?
4/6 succeeded, 3 on their first trial
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in the experiment with sticks and getting food what did they conclude?
this was the first spontaneous sequential tool use in birds
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what experiment did they set up to see if crows could creatively problem solve?
food in bucket in a tube had to choose between a straight rod and bent rod
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what happeed in the creative prob solving experiment?
the birds mate stole and hit the bent rod but the F took the straight one put it in a crack and bent it to get he food
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why could what she do not be associative learning?
it was done on the first trial
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why could it not be observational?
they controlled her environment never been exposed to it before
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what was it likely to be?
innate
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what makes this experiment dodgy?
onlyone individual
507 of 584
how did they test if crows had a nowledge of force?
had platform pushers and stone nudgers, 1 had platform with stone on it, the other had shorter tube and had to push platform with beak (tap it), platform pushers then put in with stones see if used them
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if only stone nudgers were able to get the food what was it likely to be?
chaining
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if the platform pushers could also use the stone what was no longer an explanation?
associative learning
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after all rhese experiments what had they showed about cros?
1) genetic predispostioon to tool use but crude 2) spontaneous, creative problem solving, 3) sequence of tools (tube+food exp) 4) knowledge of force
511 of 584
what were they testing when looking at food caching in western scrub jays?
memory and social cognition
512 of 584
living in a group gives animals understanding of what?>
1) dominance 2) relationships 3) mental states
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what 2 questions were they addressing with the western scrub jays?
do they remember details of chache? do they protect chache from thieves?
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who looked at caching behaviour in western scrub jays?
Nicky Clayton- Cambridge university
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what is semantic memory?
fact learning
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what is episodic memory?
unique recollection of events, conscious
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what memory did they show the western scrub jays have?>
episodic like memory
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what experimetn did they do to test if they have an episodic like memory?
2 groups: either could cash worms or in 1st then 120 hrs then could cahche the opposte to what they first thad ->4 hours recovery
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what did they find?
when there was 120hrs more they cached the nuts as theyu wouldnt be nice when they got them out
520 of 584
what is the Bischof-Kohler hypothesis?
animals are bound to their current motivational state and can't plan ahead!
521 of 584
how did they see if the western scrub jays could plan ahead?
3 chambers, were 1st in middle, brekafast only given in left chamber learnt which one provides food, given items in middle could cahce L or R, cached items in right where they knew theyre'd be no food
522 of 584
is it better to have a scatter hoard or lump sum if you're prone to cache thievery?
scatter hord
523 of 584
what are the scrub jays cache protection strategies?
when watched: 1) cahced behind barriers 2) cahce in shade 3) lots of re-caching, flexible: own plfering experience if they stole were more acreful
524 of 584
what kind of evolution did corvids have?
convergent evolution with very different brains
525 of 584
what did Piersma study?
pressure sensory mechanism for prey detection in birds (seabird dynamics)
526 of 584
what species of bird did they look at in piersma?
red knots
527 of 584
what is the sensory mechanism in red knots which allow them to detect prey?
pressure gradients, bills prbe, inantimate objects block pore water flow
528 of 584
what kind of experiments did they do in piersma?
operant ocnditioning experiments(bivalves and stones)
529 of 584
what do birds who have pressure detection have a lot of?
presence of large array of herbst corpuslces
530 of 584
whatwere they testing in Piersma?
whether red knots could detect hard shelled prey without touching them, could they tell the diference with between buckets with wet sand from buckets with wet sand and objects in
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how many redknots did they use?
4 redknots
532 of 584
how many trials were ther?
8
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why was thre null rejected?
all reached discrimination after 500 trials for sotnes
534 of 584
what are herbst corpusles for?
sensory detect the accelearating components of pressure buildup
535 of 584
what did Hansell and ruxton look at?
tool use
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what did we do in bird song experiment?
1) count syllables 2) count number of unique syllanles 3) calcultae song length 4)calculate frequency range
537 of 584
what parameters are best to determine how complex the bird song was?
how mnay unique syllables and frequency
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whats the difference between bird song and calls?
song- Ms in breeding season+territory, tends to be long complex vocalisatios, calls- short simple produced both sexes throughout the year
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what birds can produce song?
1) passerines (passeriformes) 2) hummingbirds (Trochildiae) 3) parrots (psittaciformes)
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what did Amy Leedale do her research on?
blackcaps- sylvia atriccapilla
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what 2 distinct parts of bird song did amy leevadale find?
first warble then a whistle
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what was the warble for?
mate attraction
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what was the whistle for?
territory defence
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what question was amy answering how?
was whistle used in territory defence?proportion of whistle increases with territorial inclusion
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did whistle increase with playback of other blackcaps?
yes
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what was amys conclusions?
whistle used in territory defence, different song parts different functions
547 of 584
what was done to look at song complexity in great **** (parus major)?
kept Fs in avaries, created playbacks with 1-5 songs (diff repetories-complexity) recorded n the field, released a male adjacent avery visible to F through 1 way glass, played each track to each emale over 5 dys and counted how often she displayed
548 of 584
what did they find in the study of great **** Parus major) when looking at song complexity and F choice?
Fs displayed more to males when played songs of a greater reptorire (complexity)
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how many songs did we analyse in lab?
7 bird songs
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what were e questioning when looking at bird song complexity?
does sexual selecton drive the bird song to be more complex across multiple species
551 of 584
who had the biggest residula testis mass size?
blackcap
552 of 584
what is esidual testis mass?
looks at how big testes are in proportion oto bozy size, how far away romline of best fit
553 of 584
what was found iwith sexual selection intensity in bird song?
more promiscious species more comp for mates- bigger sxual selection intensity, Fs mate with more than 1 M, produce more sperm is an advantage, more sperm need larger testes, testis sze subject to strong sexual selection
554 of 584
what does testes size give us an ndication of?
indication of the strength of sexual selection within a population especially post-copulatory) promiscious species
555 of 584
what species int he assortative mating practical showeed non-randomassortative mating?
red deer- have rucks best M wins, western bluebids, more brightMs mate with brightly coloured females=quality, dosophila, Timema cristinae (stick insects)
556 of 584
how did timenae cristinae show assortative mating?
stick insects have dfferent pateterns and colours, adapted to diff places for camoflauge, mate with similar pattern
557 of 584
how did drosophila show assortative mating?
courtship, Ms taste F leg, F chooses on song
558 of 584
what does non random mating drive?
the evolution of sexually selected traits
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what may drive non-random mating?
1) intrasexual competition, in red deer Ms compete intensely largest+most competitive males mating with most Fs 2) mate choice- indivs prefer certain traits in partener ehg blue eyes
560 of 584
what is assortative mating?
individuals with simalar traits mate with each other
561 of 584
what did martin look at?
asortative mating in drosophila montana
562 of 584
when would dissortative mating occur (someone different to you)?
MHC complex, if genetic disease, immunity
563 of 584
what trait did we test in the assortative mating practical? method?
facial attractiveness/symmetry, rate attractiveness on scale 1-10
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what did the results show?
no relationship between facial attractiveness in couples, not assortative, other things more important
565 of 584
behavioural eocology research on humans good and bad things?
good: practical apps, large samples, find out what thinking, bad: cultural differences, bpeople lie
566 of 584
what 1 of Tinbergens questions is ecology focused on?
focues on adaptive significance therefore function (also genetics)
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what was there differences in in drisophila from vancouver and colarodo?
latency and copulation duration
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did they find assortaive mating in drosophila?
no there wasnt matings between populations
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what did Fehr and Gatcher look at?
cooperation and altrustic punishment
570 of 584
why does the male buffalo have horns?
to fight off predators(lions) and to fight other Ms for Fs
571 of 584
what does the Dawood have?
massive jaws that chuck off other males to egt to the F fight
572 of 584
what is intrasexual selection?
gender against the same gender, Males fighting males
573 of 584
male stalked eyed fly stalks are for what?
make flying hard but Fs prefer mate with Ms to longest stalks best quality males produce them
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what is the female choosing the long eyed stalks called?
intersexual selection
575 of 584
why put in effort into displays and appereance when theres costs?
they can pay off for reproductive success mate more and more offspirng even if they die sooner
576 of 584
what did Will Halmiton come up with?
theory of kin selection/indirect fitness
577 of 584
what is the tradeoff with robert trivers parental investment theory?
investement in one offspring mreduces that avaliable for toher offspring
578 of 584
what is the coefficient of relatedness for parent and child?
0.5
579 of 584
coefficient of relatedness for brothers and sisters?
0.5
580 of 584
what is individual/direct selection?
behaviorual act favoured by that involves parent and offpring, personal reproduction your own kids
581 of 584
what is indirect/kin selection?
a behavioural act favoured by selection as it benefits relatives like siblings or cousins
582 of 584
what is inclusive fitness?
total contribution of genes to next generation, direct + indirect fitness
583 of 584
the genes for altrustic behaviour will spread id what?
rB > C
584 of 584

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Card 2

Front

whats Tinberrgs 4 questions?

Back

FECD 1) Function- what is the adaptive signficance 2) Evolution (ancestors have it? how evolved/evolutionary history? why evolved like this?) 3) Causation- (stimuli mechanism, casual factors,certain times/situations) 4) development (innate or learnt)

Card 3

Front

what is the species of bat that makes perfume?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what creates the smell from the bat?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what does the bat use to make perfume?

Back

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