Approaches in Psychology

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  • Created by: Abbie
  • Created on: 14-06-13 15:03
What are the assumptions/features of the biological approach?
All behaviour has a biological basis. The casual level of analysis concentrates on the physiological processes underlying behaviour. The functional level of analysis is the evolutionary basis of behaviour; including genetics.
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What is involved in the causal level of analysis?
the human body is made of hundreds of cells that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. we are 'electrochemical machines'. Behaviour is controlled by the nervous system.
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What is the nervous system?
The CNS is the brain and spinal chord. the PNS consists of all the nerves from the CNS. The ANS controls autonomic proccesses in the body e.g. heart rate.and the somatic which controls muscle movement.
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What are the key functions of the automatic nervous system?
Heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, body temperature, 'Fight' or 'Flight; syndrome.
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What is the functional level of analysis?
biological approach also focuses on evolutionary and genetic basis of behaviour. Darwin proposed 2 concepts central to evolution: Natural selection & sexual selection.
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What is Natural selection?
within a species, those animals that will survive have particular traits that give them an advantage compared to others. 'fit' animals leave more offspring spreading 'adaptive traits'.
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What three principles does natural selection depend upon?
diversity - population of species. Interaction - species interact with environment to see which 'fit; animals that breathe air wont fit water Differential amplification - population that 'fits' will have more offspring than those who don't 'fit'.
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What is Sexual selection?
Male is able to produce many sperm so can have as many offspring as the mate can produce. female is restricted giving birth to 1. - she has more invested in its survival.
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evidence for genes being inherited?
Twin studies, adoption studies, Family studies.
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Strengths of the biological approach?
valuable evidence to support it, useful applications e.g. drugs for disorders. Scientific, methods are objective. Provides strong counter arguments to the nurture side of nature nurture debate.
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Limitations of the biological approach?
Deterministic. reductionist, dehuminising; reduces all behaviours down to biological proccesses. ignores role of nurture
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What are applications of the biological approach?
Gender development - Testostrone is a possible biological cause of gender differences. Schiz/Mood disorders - Role of chemicals (dopamine) drugs to treat schiz.
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Card 2

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What is involved in the causal level of analysis?

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the human body is made of hundreds of cells that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. we are 'electrochemical machines'. Behaviour is controlled by the nervous system.

Card 3

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What is the nervous system?

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Card 4

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What are the key functions of the automatic nervous system?

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Card 5

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What is the functional level of analysis?

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