Approaches and Biopsychology paper 2

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what is introspection and who invented it?
Wundt - introspection is a method used to investigate the human mind. Used ticking metronome & asked people to explain conscious thoughts throughout ticking.
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what environment was Introspection investigated in? what are the effects of this?
controlled environment and same stimulus used for everything (metronome)...as there was a standardised procedure this meant the process is easily replicated.
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what is the aim of introspection?
By recording the pps' conscious thoughts and breaking them down into their basic parts, the structure of consciousness is isolated (structuralism)
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what was the scientific appeal of Wundt's work on introspection?
His work developed psychology as more scientifically related and got away from being philosophical, as he tried to make the experiment more objective and scientific
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advs of Wundt's work on Introspection?
some methods he used considered scientific today e.g controlled environment, standardised procedure...so seen as highly scientific as high in reliability and validity.
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disadv of Wundt's work on introspection?
some aspects considered unscientific today e.g relied on self reports on mental processes, may not have wanted to reveal certain thoughts and may not have had same every time, so establishing general principles impossible.
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disadv of Wundt's work on introspection? (contd)
the subject of the research (conscious thoughts) is unmeasurable as conscious thoughts are mental processes that can't be observed and measured, results lack validity,
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disadv of Wundt's work on introspection? (contd)
demand characteristics may have developed as the experiment took place in strictly controlled conditions so may not be reflective of how pps behave in natural environment
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what is the behaviourist approach? what assumptions does it make?
suggests that behaviour is learned and can be controlled via classical and operant conditioning. It assumes that all people are born as a blank slate (Tabula Rasa) and theres no genetic influence
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what is operant conditioning? who was it discovered by?
a type of learning in which a new voluntary behaviour is associated with a consequence, discovered by Skinner
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what was Skinner's experiment?
test operant cond. on rats by putting them in a cage w/ a lever that released food when pressed (pos reinforcement), floor was also metal & could produce an electric shock i.e punishment which could be stopped by pushing the lever (neg. reinforcement
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what are the two main types of operant conditioning?
positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement
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what is classical conditioning? Who was it discovered by?
classical conditioning is a type of learning in which an existing involuntary reflex is associated with a new stimulus. Classical conditioning was discovered by Pavlov
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What was Pavlov's experiment?
bell (neutral stimulus) rung when food presented (uncond. stimulus) made dogs salivate (uncond. response), after conditioning bell associated with food & becomes the conditioned stimulus producing saliva without presenting food (conditioned response)
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what is stimulus generalisation according to Pavlov?
stimuli that has similar characteristics to the controlled stimulus will result in the same conditioned response.
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advs of behaviourist approach?
1) application to treatment of phobias: treatments such as systematic desensitisation developed using classical cond. principles...research has real life value. 2) scientific credibility as in controlled lab setting, easy to replicate and reliable.
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disadvs of behaviourist approach?
over-reliance on animal research...animal behaviour may not directly apply to humans so results not representative of humans and not reliable/accurate.
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what is the social learning theory and who invented it?
Bandura - it is a theory which suggests that we learn through observing other people.
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how does SLT occur?
if observer sees person modelling a behaviour they'll identify with them & later form mental representation of behaviour & weigh up pros & cons of replicating it. If pros outweigh cons they're likely to do it, this is called imitation.
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what is vicarious reinforcement in SLT?
if a model is rewarded rather than punished for a behaviour then the observer is more likely to imitate the behaviour
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what were the four meditational factors Bandura proposed in learning?
attention, retention, reproduction and motivation
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advs of SLT?
1) real life application - helps understand human behaviour e,g criminals raised in aggressive enviro. by ppl seen as role models &likely to replicate. 2) includes cognitive factors such as meditational processes (weigh up pros & cons), more detailed
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disadvs of SLT?
1)over reliance on lab studies, many Bandura experiments in high controlled labs (dem. characteristics = results unreliable). 2) ignores biological factors, research found boys more aggressive which cant be explained by SLT alone (bc of testosterone)
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What is the cognitive approach?
provides scientific study of mind & suggests its an information processor. Says that as internal mental processes i.e memory, perception & thinking can't be observed they should be observed indirectly based on a person's behaviour in a lab experiment
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how do schemas affect cognitive processing according to the approach? what are they?
schemas are packages of knowledge and expectations developed by experience. They help interpret incoming info and process this quickly to help us respond in an appropriate way.
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what is the information processing model in the cognitive approach?
suggests that information flows through the cognitive system in a series of stages e.g input, storage and retrieval
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how is the brain alike to a computer according to this theory?
in each there is an input, then the brain or CPU processes info and then theres an output. Also both use different stores to hold info.
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how has the development of neuroscience helped cognitive research?
Neuroscience has helped to link behaviour to mental processes and support the cognitive approach. The use of brain scans allow psychologists to identify which structures of the brain are responsible for different behaviours.
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advs of cognitive approach?
1)high control (lab) =reliable results 2) cognitive neuroscience allows biology & psychology to join so research has scientific cred. 3) real life app. e.g depressives seen to have negative schema so treatment aims to challenge/remove this schema.
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disadvs of cognitive approach?
1) lacks eco. valid. as memory research often use artificial stimuli e,g isolated words/digits, not reflective 2) computer analogy ignores effect of human emotion & motivation & how it may affect ability to process info. e,g anxiety affects EWT.
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what is the biological approach?
biological approach believes our behaviour to be as a consequence of our genetics and physiology (how the nervous system, hormones and brain work)
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advs of biological approach?
1) scientific methods e.g. brain scans used = reliable, supported by raine et al who analysed aggressive behaviour by using brain scans to compare murderers & non murderers, murderers found to have less activity in prefrontal area (self control).
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advs of biological approach? (contd)
2) real life application, increased understanding of biochemical processes in the brain has led to development of psychoactive drugs that treat serious mental illnesses e.g. depression.
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how does the biological approach explain human behaviour and how it is developed?
everything psychological is at first biological as the development of the brain is determined by the genes a person inherits therefore behaviour may be influenced by genetic factors.
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what is a phenotype?
the way genes are expressed through different characteristics
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what is a genotype?
genetic makeup
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how does the biological approach explain the evolution of behaviour?
any genetically determined behaviour that increases a person's chances of survival will be passed onto future generations aka natural selection , it is also believed that psychological characteristics e.g intelligence & have evolved bc survival adv.
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disadvs of biological approach?
1) effect of nature vs nurture = assumed if MZ twins higher concord. rate than DZ its bc genetics but enviro. could effect. Supported by Gottesman & Shields, higher concord. of schizophrenia in MZ (58%) than DZ (12%) but under 100% so other factors.
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what are the assumptions of the psychodynamic approach?
we have innate drives/instincts (many are unconscious) that operate on the bind & direct our behaviour and experience. Personality made of 3 things: id, ego and superego. Child experiences influence personality as adult.
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what is Freud's iceberg theory?
Freud suggested our conscious mind is merely the tip of the iceberg and the majority of our mind is unconscious/below the surface, which is the part that we're unaware directs our behaviour.
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what is within the unconscious mind?
there are biological drives and instincts that influence our behaviour and personality. Our repressed memories also contribute to this.
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what is the preconscious mind and what does it include?
it is just under the conscious mind and includes thoughts and ideas we may become aware of through dreams or slips of the tongue
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what did Freud describe the personality as?
the triparte: id, ego, superego
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what is the id? when does it develop? conscious/unconscious?
develops at birth, entirely unconscious, selfish and operates on pleasure principle (gets what it wants), demands instant gratification of it's needs
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what is the ego? when does it develop? conscious/ unconcious?
develops at 2-4 years old, based on reality principles, mediator between the id and the superego and reduces conflict between them by using defence mechanisms (repression, denial and displacement)
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what is the superego? when does it develop? conscious/unconscious?
formed at phallic stage (3-6years), based on morality principle (sense of right and wrong), represents moral standards of the child's same sex parent & punishes ego for wrongdoing (through guilt)
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what are the defence mechanisms of the ego and what do they mean?
1) repression: force distressing mem. into unconcious, unable cause anx. 2) denial = refuse accept reality to reduce anx. 3) displacement = transfer feelings of true source of distress onto substitute. reduce anx. by allowing expression of emotion.
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what are the psychosexual stages according to freud? how did he believe child development occurred?
5 stages of development: oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital. Each stage has unconscious sexual drive. All stages (- latency) child solves conflict to progress. Unresolved conflict = fixation. Child is stuck & carries certain behav. into adulthood
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what is the oral stage? when is it developed? what is the consequence of fixation?
0-1 years, pleasure gain from biting, sucking, swallowing (i.e breastfeeding). If weaned from mums milk too early = fixated. Leads to smoking, biting nails, sarcastic, critical. Or orally passive (dependent, gullible)
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what is the anal stage? when is it developed? what is the consequence of fixation?
2-3 years, child gains pleasure withholding/expelling faeces (potty training). Strict potty training (anal retentive) = fixation. Leads to perfectionist, obsessive, organised, reluctant to spend. Anal expulsive/ overuse of potty = thoughtless & messy
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what is the phallic stage? when is it developed? what is the consequence of fixation?
3-5 years, focus of pleasure is genital area, experiences oedipus or electra complex. Fixation = phallic personality which is jealousy, narcissistic, reckless, anxious, possibly homosexual
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what is the latency stage? when is it developed?
6- puberty, earlier conflicts are repressed
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what is the genital stage? when is it developed? what is the consequence of fixation?
puberty onwards, sexual desire become conscious alongside onset of puberty, no fixation as the effects from previous stages occur here, difficulty forming heterosexual relationships
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what is the oedipus complex?
boys develop incestuous feelings for mum and develop hatred for dad as a 'rival'. Develop castration anxiety as fear dad may see them as rival too. To reduce anx. repress feels for mum & identify w/dad, take on their gender role & moral values
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what is the electra complex?
girls develop incestuous feelings for Dad and hatred for mum as a rival. Girls realise dont have a penis so develop penis envy (wish to be boy), blame mum for castrated state. To reduce anx identifies w/mum and takes on gender role/moral values.
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what is a disadvantage of the psychodynamic approach? (criticisms)
Popper argued that the approach didn't meet the scientific criteria of 'falsification' as it isn't open to being disproved bc many of Freud's concepts happen at an unconscious level. Popper stated it is therefore a 'pseudoscience' (fake science)
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what is another disadvantage of the psychodynamic approach? (probs with supp. research)
supporting research is mainly from individuals who were in therapy i.e little Hans so although they are detailed/highly controlled, argued that cant generalise findings for individuals who are psychologically abnormal
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what is another disadvantage of the psychodynamic approach? (bias)
gender bias as freud was ignorant of female sexuality, based theory on male sexuality as the norm and didn't consider differences for females.
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what is the humanist approach?
involves the concept of free will; humans have the ability to choose what they do & control their behav, not determined by biological or external forces. Differs from all approaches as they are deterministic
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what was Rogers and Maslow's explanation/idea of human behaviour?
they rejected all scientific models that attempted to establish general rules of human behav. as we are all unique & believed psychology should study subjective experiences not general laws (person-centred approach)
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what is mallow's hierarchy of needs?
a 5 levelled hierarchical sequence in which basic needs (e.g hunger, warmth) must be satisfied before higher psychological needs (e.g self esteem, self actualisation) can be achieved
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what is self actualisation?
this is everyone's innate tendency to achieve their full potential and become the best they possibly can be. This is at the top level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
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what do humanists regard as an essential part of being human?
personal growth, as it is concerned with developing and changing as a person to become fulfilled, satisfied and goal orientated.
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what was Rogers' argument about how personal growth will be achieved?
to achieve personal growth your self concept must have congruence (be similar) with their ideal self. If theres a big gap between the 2 selves the person experiences a state of incongruence & self actualisation will be difficult due to neg. feelings
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how did rogers theory about self and congruence and its effect on personal growth influence counselling techniques?
reduced gap between self concept & ideal self by client centred therapy. Argued lack of self esteem in adulthood = lack of uncond. pos. regard from parents, i.e conditions of worth 'i will love u if'. So provided them w/uncond pos. regard they lacked
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what is a disadvantage of the humanist approach? (bias)
culture bias as some of the concepts central to the app. such as freedom, autonomy and personal growth are desirable in individualist cultures (i.e UK) but not so in collectivist cultures so may not identify with these ideals of the approach
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what is an advantage of the humanist approach?
real life app as Rogers idea of unconditional pos regard is used in therapy/counselling to help client work towards self actualisation. Also, Maslow's hierarchy of needs has been used to explain motivation in the workplace
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what is another advantage to the humanist approach?
positive approach as it suggests that people are in control of their lives and have the ability to improve their personal growth whereas Freud's theory states that we're slaves to the past.
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what are the two major systems within the nervous system?
the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system
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what does the CNS consist of?
the brain and spinal cord
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what is the function of the brain?
it is the centre for all conscious awareness and responsible for vital functioning as well as higher order thinking (e.g problem solving).
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what is the function of the spinal cord?
it is responsible for reflex actions e.g pulling your hand away from a hot plate and facilitates transferral of messages to and from brain and PNS
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what is the role of the PNS?
it sends and receives information to the CNS and is the nervous system for the limbs & torso which collects info from the environment.
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what are the two systems within the PNS?
the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
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what is the somatic nervous system?
1) transfers info to and from senses and to and from CNS 2) directs muscles to react and move (voluntary movement) 3) has sensory and motor pathways (e.g receiving and sending messages)
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what is the autonomic nervous system?
It transmits info to and from internal organs so controls vital functions and involved in fight or flight
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what are the two parts of the autonomic nervous system?
sympathetic nervous system and para-sympathetic nervous system
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what is the sympathetic nervous system?
responsible for fight or flight
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what is the para sympathetic nervous system?
responsible for conserving/restoring the body's energy e.g slowing your heart beat (calms body down after fight or flight).
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what is the endocrine system?
a collection of glands which release hormones which are then secreted into the blood stream
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what are hormones said to effect?
behaviour
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which other system does the endocrine system work with? what do they achieve?
the endocrine system works with the autonomatic nervous system to control vital functions in the body
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what are the parts involved in the endocrine system?
pituitary gland, adrenal gland, testes and ovaries.
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what is the role of the adrenal gland?
it is an important part in the fight or flight response and facilitates the release of adrenaline
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what is the role of the testes?
to release testosterone
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what is the role of the ovaries?
release oestrogen and progesterone
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what is the role of the pituitary gland?
controls release of hormones from all other glands
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which systems work together to produce the fight or flight response?
the endocrine and autonomatic nervous system
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how does the autonomatic nervous system react to a stressor? (brief outline not steps)
it goes from a resting state (para-sympathetic state) to a physically aroused state (sympathetic state)
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how does the autonomatic nervous system react to a stressor (in steps)?
1) hypothalamus sees threat & send message to ANS, trigger change from para-sympathetic to sympathetic state, pituitary gland release ACTH which effects cells in adrenal glands = adrenaline released into blood = physiological changes for fight/flight
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What are the physical changes in fight or flight?
increased heart rate, increased breathing rate, pupil dilation, production of sweat, reduced function of immune and digestive system and muscle tension
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what are dendrites?
they receive signals from other neurone, carrying nerve impulses towards the cell body
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what is the cell body?
the control centre of the neurone
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what is the axon?
carried the nerve impulse to the axon terminal
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what is the myelin sheath?
insulates the axon to enable the nerve impulses to transmit rapidly along the axon
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what are the 3 types of neurones?
sensory, relay and motor
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what is the role of the sensory neurone?
receives info from the environment by processing it through its senses, the information is then received by the senses in the PNS and the message is relayed to the CNS
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what is the role of the relay neurone?
carry messages from one part of the CNS to another, they connect sensory and motor neurones
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what is the role of the motor neurone?
carries signals from the CNS to the muscles or effectors in the PNS, and this message is sent to the organs and muscle groups to allow them to function
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advs for the fight or flight theory?
1) research into bodily systems are scientific so not open to bias & reliability is increased
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disadvs for the fight or flight theory?
1) research is mostly correlational so cause & effect can't be established e.g correlation between testosterone & agg. but not sure whether testosterone causes agg. or is an effect of being agg. 2) reductionist as ignores other non biological factors
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what is the process of a synaptic transmission? (basic outline)
the process of transmitting messages from one neurone to another
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what are the stages involved in a synaptic transmission?
electrical nerve impulses travel down the neurone and prompts the release of neurotransmitters at the presynaptic terminal which are released into synapse, then taken up by post synaptic receptor sites, this message converted into electrical impulse
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what is the localisation of function theory?
the theory that different areas of the brain are responsible for different, behaviours, processes or activities.
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what are the two halves of the brain that the brain is divided into?
left and right hemisphere
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what does the right hemisphere control?
activity in left side of the body
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what does the left hemisphere control?
activity in the right side of the body
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what is the outer layer of both hemispheres called?
cerebral cortex
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why does the cortex separate us from animals and what colour is it?
our cortex is much more developed than animals', it is grey.
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where is the motor centre and what does it do?
back of the frontal lobe in both hemispheres, controls voluntary movement in the opposite side of the body
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where is the language centre and what is the key area within the left frontal lobe? what is it responsible for and what does damage to it result in?
Language centre is only in left hemisphere, Broca's area is in the left frontal lobe and is responsible for speech production, damage to this causes Broca's aphasia (slow and influent speech)
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what is another key area within the left temporal lobe of the language centre and what does damage to it cause?
Wernicke's area in the left temporal lobe which is responsible for language comprehension & interpretation of speech. Damage = Wernicke's aphasia: difficulties understanding lang. so speech fluent but meaningless.
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where is the auditory area and what is it's role? which is a significant aspect of this area and what can damage to this cause?
the auditory area is in the temporal lobes which analyses speech base info, damage to this may cause hearing loss. Specific area in temporal lobe is Wernicke area which may affect lang comprehension
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where is the visual area and what does damage to certain parts cause?
the visual area is in the occipital lobe at the back of the brain, each eye sends info to the opposite cortex of the brain. Damage to right hemisphere will produce blindness in left visual field of each eye
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what is the somatosensory area and where is it? which body parts occupy most of this area?
the somatosensory area is both parietal lobes and is where sensory information from the skin is represented. Receptors for our hands & face occupy half the area
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what is an advantage of localisation of function? (supporting ev)
Phineas Gage case study - suffered damage to left frontal lobe & personality dramatically changed, became rude and quick tempered. Suggests frontal lobes responsible for regulating mood/personality
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what is a weakness of case studies as supporting evidence for localisation of function?
difficult to generalise as they are unique individuals, also lack of details prior to the incident and no control of variables e.g exact damage suffered. So cant draw specific conclusions.
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what is an advantage of localisation of function (scan supporting research)
peterson et al found wernicke's area was active in listening tasks and broca's area was active in reading tasks, scientific ev of brain function as brain scans are objective methods for measuring activity.
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what is a disadvantage of localisation of function? (critics)
critics argue that it is biologically reductionist as it tries to reduce very complex human behaviours and complex cognitive processes to one specific brain region.
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what is plasticity?
the brain's tendency to change and adapt (functionally and physically) as a result of experience and new learning.
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who does the study of maguire et al support plasticity?
found + volume of grey matter in posterior hippocampus of taxi drivers (develops spatial/navigational skills). Taxis take test: assess recall of streets & routes. Learning exp. alters brain structure. Pos corr. between job yrs and structural diff
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what is functional recovery?
the brains ability to redistribute/ transfer functions after damage through trauma. Unaffected areas of brain adapt & compensate for damaged areas. Brain rewires itself by forming new synaptic transmissions.
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what 3 processes take place in the brain to help it recover from injury?
synaptic pruning, axonal sprouting, recruitment of homologous area
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what is synaptic pruning?
as we age, rarely used connections are deleted and frequently used connections are strengthened
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what is axonal sprouting?
undamaged axons grow new nerve endings to reconnect neurones whose links were injured or severed
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what is recruitment of homologous area?
regions on the opposite sides of the brain take on functions of damaged areas
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what is an advantage of plasticity? (supporting research) but disadv?
Maguire et al - BUT this used correlational data so difficult to know whether the change in the structure of their brain was due to learning experience as weren't tested before; changes may have previously existed.
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what is an advantage of functional recovery? (supporting research)
Danelli et al - removal of left hemisphere of boy = disappearance of all linguistic abilities. Intensive rehabilitation improved lang abilities. Tested 15 yrs later & found right hem. compensated for left in linguistic functioning
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what is a weakness of this supporting research for functional recovery? (case study)
no record of functioning levels prior to trauma so cant assess extent it has recovered compared to pre-trauma levels. Ability to recover varies bc of individual & extent of damage so cant generalise.
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what is hemispheric laterilisation? e.g?
the theory that certain mental processes/behaviours are controlled by one hemisphere rather than the other, i.e the left hemisphere is believed to control language
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who conducted split brain research and how did they aim to use this to explore hemispheric laterilisation?
Sperry - researched pps w/severe epilepsy who had corpus callosum cut to reduce side effects. corpus callosum = main communication line between 2 hemispheres so allowed sperry to assess extent to which brain function is laterilised
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what was the procedure involved in Sperry's research and what did this test?
image/word flashed for split 2nd to Right vf (processed by left hem) or left vf (processed by right hem). presenting info to one hem of a split brain patient meant the info couldn't be conveyed from that hem to the other.
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what were the variations of sperrys research?
describing what you see, recognition by touch, matching faces and drawing ability
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what happened when the pps described what they saw? (left vf and right vf)
image shown in right visual field could be described, left visual field couldn't be described - suggests language processed in left hemisphere. pps unable to process info in left vf due to lack of language centre in right hem.
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what happened in the recognition by touch condition?
ops couldn't attach verbal labels to objects projected in the left vf but able to select matching object from group of objects using left hand, i.e saw cigarrete & selected ash tray. Shows pps understood what object was using right hemisphere
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what happened in the matching faces condition?
the right hemisphere appeared dominant when matching faces
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what happened in the drawing ability condition?
the right hemisphere is superior in terms of drawing tasks - the left hand
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what is an advantage of spoilt brain research?
sig. findings Sperry & Gazzaniga - left hemisphere = analytical/ verbal tasks, right = spatial tasks & music. right hem can only produce basic words/phrases, but contributes emotional content to lang. Left = analyser, right = synthesiser
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what is a synthesiser?
combines things into a coherent whole
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what is an advantage of Sperry's split brain research for hemispheric materialisation?
high reliability as controlled conditions i.e flashed image in right/left visual field for 1/10 of a second so pps didn't have time to move eyes and spread info across both vf. Due to control, allows procedure to be repeated.
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what is a disadvantage of Sperry's split brain research?
lack generalisability as only 11 pps who had epileptic seizures, could be argued this may cause unique changes in the brain that may influence findings. So may not be representative of population
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what are biological rhythms?
all living organisms are subject to biological rhythms; they are governed by 2 things - endogenous pacemakers (body's internal clock) and exogenous zeitgebers (external changes in the environment)
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what is the circadian rhythm?
a type of biological rhythm, subject to a 24 hour sleeping cycle which regulates a number of body processes such as the sleep/wake cycle & changes in core body temp.
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why do we feel drowsy at night and alert during the day?
due to the effect of daylight (an important exogenous zeitgeber)
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how does Michael Siffre's experiment support biological rhythms? what happened?
6 months underground & deprived of exposure to natural sunlight, body clock allowed to free run (sleep/wake cycle became 25-30hrs) and he lost track of days spent in cave. Suggests natural light sources vital for keeping the 24 hour sleep cycle
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how does Aschoff and Wevers study support the biological rhythms theory? what happened?
studied pps in a WW2 bunker w/only electric light & no windows. Body clocks settled into sleep/wake cycle of 25-27hrs. Suggests we use natural light to adjust our pacemakers w/the environment & 24hr clock isn't in line w/our natural bodily rhythms
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how does Folkard's study oppose the biological rhythms theory? what happened?
12 pps in cave 3 weeks, bed at 11;45 & rose at 7;45. Secretly gradually sped up clock, so supposedly 24hr hr day only 22hrs. no pps comfortably adjusted to this; suggests circadian rhythm cant be overridden by changes in external enviro
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what is an advantage of the research on circadian rhythms?
provided explan for consequences of shift work, typically workers have reduced concentration around 6am & mistakes are likely.
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what is a disadvantage of the research on circadian rhythms?
use of case studies and small samples in this research means pps may not be representative so generalisations cant be made
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what is another disadvantage of the research on circadian rhythms?
participants still had access to artificial light (which they assumed would have no affect on their CR) but this may have been confounding variable as other research found CRs can be adjusted using dim artificial light
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what is an infradian rhythm? e.g?
a type of rhythm which takes more than 24 hours ti complete such as menstruation and seasonal affective disorder
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explain the female mestrual cycle
controlled by monthly changes in hormone levels which regulate ovulation. Cycle is 28 days, inc. oestrogen = ovaries release egg. Progesterone = womb lining thickens & prepares body for pregnancy. No preg = egg absorbed into body & womb lining shed
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what type of system is the menstrual cycle?
endogenous system
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explain Stern and McClintock's study? results?
29 women w/irregular periods, samples of pheromones gathered from 9 women at diff stages of cycle (cotton pad armpit 8hrs) rub on lips of other pps. Found 68% experience changes in cycle that brought them closer to pheromone donor.
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What is SAD?
it is a seasonal depressive disorder with symptoms of persistent low mood and lack of activity and interest in life which are triggered in winter months when hours of daylight are shorter
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how is SAD caused? (which hormones)
caused by melatonin, during the night the pineal gland secretes melatonin until dawn when theres an increase in light, during winter lack of light makes this secretion last longer, this has a knock on effect to secretion of serotonin (linked to dep)
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what is an ultradian rhythm? e.g?
a type of biological rhythm that takes less than 24 hours to complete, e.g stages of sleep
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how many sleep stages are there and how long does 1 cycle last? How can each stage be measured?
5 stages, each cycle is 90 minutes, can measure stages by their different levels of brain wave activity using an EEG.
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what are stages 1 and 2 of sleep?
light sleep, they can be easily woken. Brainwaves become slower and more rhythmic (alpha waves) and then even slower (theta waves)
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what are stages 3 and 4 of sleep?
delta waves (slower and have greater amplitude than earlier waves) - this is deep sleep/ slow wave sleep. difficult to wake them.
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what is stage 5 called and what is it?
REM sleep - the body is paralysed yet brain activity speeds up and resembles the awake brain. Fast, jerky activity of the eyes. Dreaming occurs most in this stage.
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what is an advantage of infradian rhythms? (benefit)
menstrual synchrony may have had evolutionary benefits; i.e if females menstruate together and fall pregnant at same time new borns cared for collectively and increase survival chances
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what is a disadvantage of the theory about the evolutionary benefit of infradian rhythms?
Schank argued that if there were too many women cycling together in a social group. this would produce competition for highest quality males. This reduces validity and credibility of the evolutionary explanation
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what is an advantage of ultradian rhythms? (supporting research)
Dement and Kleitman - everyone had REM sleep and their dream recall was higher in REM sleep and different brain activity when dreams were vivid etc. Suggests there are different stages & Rem sleep is an important component of the ultradian cycle
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what is a weakness of research into synchronisation studies?
methodological issues - many factors may affect change in a woman's menstrual cycle e.g stress, diet, exercise etc, so this may act as a confounding variable. also rely on women's self report of cycles, reduces validity.
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what is the main endogenous pacemaker? explain what it is.
suprachiamatic nucleus which is a tiny bundle of nerves cells in the hypothalamus, this maintains circadian rhythms such as the sleep/wake cycle
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what is the SCN and where is it? what does it influence?
lies just above the optic chasm, receives info about light which enables body lock to adjust to changing patterns of daylight when we sleep, this info passed to the pineal gland and this inc. the amount of melatonin (induces sleep)
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how does DeCoursey et al support endogenous pacemakers?
destroyed SCN connections in the brains of 30 chipmunks and returned them to their natural habitat. Sleep/wake cycle disappeared and many died. Shows SCN is the dominant endogenous pacemaker
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how does Ralph et al support endogenous pacemakers? results?
removed SCN from mutant hamsters w/sleep wake cycle of 20 hrs and transplanted into brains f non mutant hamsters w/24hr sleep/wake. They changed to the 2hr cycle of mutant hamsters. SCN dominant endogenous pacemaker.
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What is the main exogenous zeitgeber?
light, as it can reset the SCN and thus maintain the sleep/wake cycle
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how does Campbell and Murphy support exogenous zeitgebers?
found light is detected by body skin receptors even when same info not received by eyes. 15 pps woken @ various times & light shone back knees. Deviation in sleep/wake cycle up to 3hrs. = light powerful EZ doesnt rely on eyes to influence brain
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what is another exogenous zeitgeber?
social cues
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briefly describe how the sleep wake cycle in infants is developed and when the circadian rhythms begin?
in human infants the initial sleep/wake cycle is pretty much random, at about 6 weeks the circadian rhythms begin & by 16 weeks are entrained (biological clock synchronised w/external cues), parent schedules are key influence i.e mealtimes & bedtimes
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What is functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI)?
works by detecting changes in blood oxygenation and flow that occur as a result of neural activity in specific areas of the brain, FMRI produces 3D images and helps us to understand localisation of function.
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what is the haemodynamic response?
when a brain area 9s more active it consumes more oxygen so to meet this demand blood flow is directed to the more active area.
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what are the advantages of FMRI?
doesn't rely on radiation unlike other scanning techniques (risk free), non - invasive, high spatial resolution so clear pic of brain activity
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what are the disadvantages of FMRI?
expensive compared to other techniques, poor temporal resolution (5 sec time lag behind image and initial firing of neurone activity), cannot focus on individual neurons
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what is an EEG?
measures electrical activity in the brain via electrodes fixed to the scalp. brainwave patterns are generated from the action of millions of neurons
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why is it often used as a diagnostic tool?
no particular pattern rhythm may indicate neurological abnormalities i.e epilepsy
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what are the advantages of EEGs?
inc. understanding of epilepsy etc and stages involved in sleep which may help develop treatments, high temporal resolution, safe and non invasive
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what are the disadvantages of EEGs?
cant pinpoint exact source of neural activity & cant distinguish between activities in different but adjacent locations,
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What are event related potentials? (ERP)
using a statistical averaging technique, all extraneous brain activity from the original EEG recording is filtered out leaving only those responses that relate to a specific stimulus/task
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advs of ERPs?
safe & non invasive, isolates activity which occurs in specific tasks, high temporal resolution
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disadvs of ERPs?
in order to establish pure data, background noise and extraneous material must be completely eliminated and this is hard to achieve
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what is a post mortem examination?
analysis of persons brain after death
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advs of post mortems?
this method was vital in understanding key processes of braun i.e Broca and Wernicke relied on this in their research
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disadvs of post mortems?
causation issues and consent issues (may not have consented to it before death), highly invasive
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what environment was Introspection investigated in? what are the effects of this?

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controlled environment and same stimulus used for everything (metronome)...as there was a standardised procedure this meant the process is easily replicated.

Card 3

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what is the aim of introspection?

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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what was the scientific appeal of Wundt's work on introspection?

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Card 5

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advs of Wundt's work on Introspection?

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