Approaches

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  • Created by: Nicole
  • Created on: 21-05-16 18:28
What psychologist came up with introspection?
Wilhelm Wundt
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What year did Wundt open the first psychology lab?
1879
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3 Assumptions of the behaviourist approach?
1)focus on observable behaviour only 2)controlled lab studies 3) Use of non-human animals
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Who did research into classical conditioning?
Pavlov- dogs- saliva/ bell
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Who did research into operant conditioning?
Skinner- rats- lever/ food or shock
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What is classical conditioning?
Learning thorough association- BEFORE: UCS--> UCR, NS--> no response DURING: NS+UCS AFTER: CS--> CR
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What is operant conditioning?
learning is an active process,- behaviour is shaped and maintained by its consequences
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Types of consequences of behaviour
Positive reinforcement, Negative reinforcement, Punishment
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Positive reinforcement
receiving a reward when a behaviour is performed- increase likelihood ofhehaviour being repreated
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Negative reinforcement
when an animal or human produces behaviour that avoids something unpleasant- increase likelihood of behaviour being repreated
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Punishment
an unpleasant consequence of behaviour- decreases the likelihood of behaviour being repeated
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Definition for stimulus generalisation
When a stimulus becomes generalised to other related stimuli which re also associated with the conditioned response
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Stimulus discrimination
when a stimulus is not associated with conditioned response as it is too different from the original stimulus e.g.phobia of needles may only be distinctive to needles and not blood
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Who did research into social learning theory?
Bandura- learning occurs indirectly through observation and imitation of others behaviour
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Vicarious reinforcement
learning related to consequences of behaviour
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What are the 4 meditational processes in learning?
1) ATTENTION- whether behaviour is noticed 2) RETENTION- whether behaviour is remembered 3) MOTOR REPRODUCTION- being able to do it 4) MOTIVATION- the will to perform the behaviour
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What conformity type is important in the SLT?
Identification of role models
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Bandura's research: Imitation of aggression
children (36 girls+36 boys) aged 3-6 either watched 1)an adult behaving aggressively towards a Bobo doll or 2)an adult behaving non-aggressively towards a Bobo doll--. children acted as they saw the adults do
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What does Bandura's research show?
children model aggressive behaviour- vicarious reinforcement
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What is the cognitive approach?
The scientific study of mental processes e.g. perception and memory
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What is a schema?
packages of information developed through experience- 'mental framework'
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what is used to describe the cognitive approach?
The computer analogy- similarities in how computers and human minds process information
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What is the biological approach?
The belief that everything psychological is at first biological
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Definition fo Genotype
a persons genotype is their actual genetic make-up
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Definition of Phenotype
it is the way that genes are expressed through physical, behavioural and psychological characteristics
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Definition of Concordance rate
the rate of probability that two people with shared genes will develop the same characteristic
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Definition of Monozygotic (MZ) twins
identical twins
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Definition of Dizygotic (DZ) twins
non-identical twins
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What is the nervous system?
It is a specialised network of cells and our primary communication system- has two functions: 1) to collect, process and respond to info in the environment 2) to co-ordinate the working of different organs and cells in the body
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Name the two parts of the Nervous system
Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
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What is the structure and function of the CNS?
made up of the brain and spinal cord, brains the centre of all conscious awareness, cerebral cortex, spinal cord (reflex actions), CNS passes messages to and from the brain and connects to PNS
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What is the structure and function of the PNS?
transmits messages through neurons to and from the nervous system, sub-divided int ANS and SNS
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What are the two parts of the PNS?
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and Somatic Nervous System (SNS)
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What does the ANS do?
it governs vital functions in the body such as breathing , heart rate etc
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What does the SNS do?
contols muscle movement and receives information form sensory receptors
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What are the two parts of the ANS?
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
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What do the sympathetic and parasympathetic NS do?
sympathetic- prepares body for fight or flight parasympathetic- relaxes the body into resting state
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What does the spinal cord do?
relays info between body and brain. controls voluntary and involuntary actions
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What is the cerebrum?
it si divided into dour lobes: frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parental lobe, occipital lobe. It is split into two cerebral hemispheres which communicate through the corpus callosum
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What does the Cerebellum do?
it is involved in control of motor skills and balance
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What does the Diencephalon do?
contains the thalamus which relays nerve impulses from the senses to the brain. The hypothalamus has many functions such s regulating body temp, hunger and thirst
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What is the Endocrine System?
it works alongside the nervous system to control vital functions in the body through the actions of hormones
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What are Glands?
They are organs in the body that produce hormones
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What is the main gland in the Endocrine System?
The pituitary gland
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What are hormones?
they are secretes in the bloodstream and affect any cell in the body that has a receptor for that particular hormone
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What happens during the fight or flight response?
Endocrine system and ANS work together. when stressed is perceived, the hypothalamus triggers activity in the sympathetic ANS. hormone adrenaline is released. this triggers physiological changed. after the parasympathetic returns
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Types of neurons
Motor, sensor, relay
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function of motor neurons
connect the CNS to effectors such as muscles and glands. have short dendrites and long axons
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function of sensory neurons
carry messages from PNS to the CNS. have long dendrites and short axons
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function of relay neurons
connect sensory neurons to motor or other relay neurons. have short dendrites and short axons
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How are neurons transmitted?
chemically or electrically
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Structure of a neuron
cell body, dendrite, axon (myelin sheath and nodes of Ranvier), terminal buttons, synapse
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negatively charged neuron
it is in resting state inside of the cell
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positively charged neuron
when it is activated, indeed the cell it becomes positively charged for a split second causing an action potential to occur -- creates an electrical impulse
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What is a synapse?
Each neuron is separated from the next by a tiny gab called the synapse
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How are signals within neurons transmitted?
electrically
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How are signals between neurons transmitted?
chemically
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How is an impulse transmitted across the synapse?
when electrical impulse reaches the end of the neuron (presynaptic terminal) it triggers the release of neurotransmitters from synaptic vesicles. after neurotransmitter crosses the gap it is taken up by the postsynaptic receptor on the next neuron
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What are neurotransmitters?
they are chemicals that diffuse across the synapse to the next neutron in the chain
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