Diet globalisation and changing the way people eat

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Why is the way we produce our food In the UK so important for mitigating climate change?
Food = responsible for 1/5 of the UK's greenhouse gas emissions.
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What are the environmental and social benefits of local/seasonal food?
Lower food miles-lower energy use. Improved freshness and quality= better nutrition. Strengthens local culture and distinctiveness + farmers get a better price. Reduced packaging.
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What are the benefits of organic food?
No use of carbon-intensive chemicals= industry is more resilient /less dependent on petroleum based chemicals. Improves biodiversity and wildlife- improves genetic diversity. Using green manures (crops left in ground)- could cut emissions by 20%.
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Why is it important to reduce packaging?
70% consumer packaging= drink or food related.
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Why does a diet high in animal products contributing to inefficient land use?
Livestock uses 40% agricultural land but only a small % calories in comparison
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To what extent has overfishing taken place?
80% world fish stocks= overexploited. Overfishing - single biggest threat to marine organisms
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Why is it important to encourage greater consumption of fruits and vegetables in the UK?
Only 1/5 of the UK population consume 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day.
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How does shopping locally improve food democracy?
For £1 spent in a local shop- worth £1.70 to the local economy but when spent in a supermarket- worth only 34p.
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What are alternative food networks (AFN's)?
Ways of producing and consuming foods which differ from the current food system dominated in W.Europe and N.America by supermarkets and large processing companies
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Give some examples of AFN's.
Agritourism(niche tourism-to enjoy/be educated/get involved in activities); box schemes(delivers fresh seasonal produce), on-farm scales, farmer's markets;community-supported agriculture:community owned social enterprise-growing+selling fresh produce
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What is the slow food movement?
A movement seeking to increase consumer enjoyment of local quality produce over the standardisation of "fast food"
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Provide some examples of organisations promoting the slow food movement?
Slow Food, Terra madre- both have international conferences
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Why is it difficult to define "slow food"?
Term can be applied to various supply models e.g. In US- sources within 400 miles= local. In the UK- sourced within 30 miles.
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What are the strategies used to make consumers aware of the relocalisation of food production taking place?
Labelling- symbols to inform consumers of origins/ingredients; Physical- relocating plants to local areas- community gardens etc. Relational- supporting "bottom-up" marketing initiatives e.g. farmer's markets, direct selling, box schemes etc.
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What is the difference between local and locality foods?
Local- producer and consumer are in same region- possibly acquainted. Consumer can be sure of quality due to transparency and closeness of source. Locality foods- consumer and producer could be far removed but quality = ensured by labels
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What are "intrinsic values"?
Size, colour, shape, structure, appearance etc.
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What are extrinsic values?
Price, brand name, supermarket supplier, nutritional information
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What are experience values?
Taste, freshness, shelf life, tenderness, convenience etc.
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List some credence values
Health benefits, environmentally friendly, ethically sourced etc.
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How is the current food system in the "west" different to a natural system of the past?
No longer based on survival-supplies manipulated. Technology used to simplify naturally diverse ecosystems, reduce gene pools and expand monocultures, new health hazards are now being created instead of predominant risk of past: malnutrition.
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Describe the type of nutritional transition that has taken place
Populations are shifting away from traditional local diets such as grain-based ones to diets with more variety, more fat and more sugar.
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What social and economic factors have contributed to a nutritional transition?
Economic- urbanisation, market liberalisation, increased incomes. Social- rural-urban migration, employment of women, convergence of ideas/cultures due to globalisation.
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Why in affluent areas has energy intake increased?
Increased food diversity, vegetable oils=inexpensive, increased eating out, exposure to media and advertising.
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Why in affluent areas has energy expenditure decreased?
Decrease in physically demanding jobs. Urbanisation= more motorisation and sedentary lifestyles
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What has dietary convergence led to?
Increased reliance upon a narrow base of staple grains, increased consumption of animal products and oils and decreased intake of fibre.
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Describe dietary adaptation
Increased consumption of processed and store-bought foods, increased food consumption outside the home
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How is meat consumption in East Asia changing over time?
Projected to multiply by 7 between 1964 and 2030 from 8.7 kg/yr to 58.5kg/yr per person
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What is the double burden of malnutrition?
2 billion people suffer:micronutrient deficiences- lack of varied diet+ abundant calories.- 1.46 billion are overweight:US-34%, UK=25% popln.382 million globally-diabetetes. Increased blood pressure, sleep apnea, CVD, cancer etc.
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What factors influence the liklihood of obesity?
Individual psychology(drive for specific foods/quantity); Biology/genetics; Food environment(what is available); Societal influence(culture/media/peer pressure); Physical activity; Activity environment (is exercise easy? i.e. infrastructure in place)
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How much more food are we likely to need to feed the growing global population by 2050 and 2100?
By 2050: 9 billion people- 70% more food. By 2100: 10 billion people- 100% more food
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How has grain production changed since the 1960's?
1961- 1 billion tons, 2011- 2.5 billion tons (more than doubling in 50 years)
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Why are undernourishment rates as high as 35% in some countries e.g. Madagascar?
Factors contributing: Popln growth has outpaced food production; wealthier countries- changed consumption patterns- e.g. increased meat + more waste; expansion of agricultural exports-cash crop= reduced domestic food supplies +decreased food security
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How has the dominant food regime in the US changed over time?
1870's: pre-industrial:unprocessed/semi-processed foods-meat and grains. 1920-70's: productionist model:grain-fed livestock+durable foods. 1980's-post industrial: industrialised farming-biotechnical: crops for global market and "elite consumption"
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Who now dominates the agri-food sector?
Agribusiness TNC's and corporate retailers
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What two farming methods have led to an industrialised food system?
Appropriationism(inputs): natural inputs replaced with industry alternatives e.g. mechanisation for human labour; chemical fetilisers for manure. Substitutionism(outputs)-creating alternatives to natural prducts e.g. artificial fibres or sweeteners.
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Why are agri-food systems so different to other sectors?
Very reliant upon nature for inputs- e.g. rainfall, sunshine, soil
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What is formal subsumption?
Reducing the dependence on nature
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What is the extent of agricultural industrialisation in a country influenced by?
Prevailing levels of technology; state support for agricultural policies/foreign investment; consumer tastes/preferences
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What is an industrialised food system characterised by?
Large farms, intensive farming, integration in global networks
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Why is so much of the agricultural efforts concentrated over such a small area in the EU?
Only 20% is considered as fertile
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List some impacts of industrialisation of agricultural systems?
Distancing from origins of foods, race to the bottom, overproduction, reduced food security for exporting countries, environmental disbenefits- water depletion, food safety concerns, increased waste, labour saving technologies=increased unemployment.
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How are food systems changing in the developed and developing world?
Developed- relocalisation of agriculture; Developing- reorientation of agriculture
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What is food system reorientation? Give an example.
A shift from growing traditional produce for domestic consumption to cash crops destined for export. Cameroon- rich in agricultural resources/fertile soil. Shift from sugar cane, potatoes and casava- pineapples, chillis, cabbages, beans etc.
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What is the race to the bottom?
Competition between retailers- desire to decrease cost of products. Aggressive bargaining strategies e.g. de-listing if producers do not agree to lower prices, shelf-space fees, retrospective discounts on goods, exclusive supply obligationcontracts
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How much does obsesity cost the NHS each year? What other costs to the economy are there?
£5.1 billion. Loss of work days
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What are the 2020 health forecasts for obsesity rates in the UK?
8/10 for men 7/10 women (Health Survey for England)
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What proportion of British pets are obese?
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Give an example of why the food environment might be more obesogenic for some people?
Fast food portion sizes have increased- 333ca in a cheesebuger 20 years ago. Now- 590ca
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Which is the country with the highest prevalence of diabetes anywhere in the world?
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What are functional foods?
Products which deliver additional or enhanced benefits above their basic nutritional value.
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How are functional foods produced?
Fortification- adding vitamins or minerals during processing/refining e.g. fortified cereals. Biofortification- development of micronutrient dense staple crops using breeding practices and modern biotechnology e.g. golden rice
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How might economics be used to help tackle obesity?
Food price intervention:taxing companies for products with high fat, sugar/salt contents; consumer level:making healthy food cheaper. Tax on excess body weight- already occurring i.e. higher health insurance for overweight individuals,
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How else might obesity levels be decreased?
Integrated health and nutritional programmes. Education at school. Campaigns on TV etc. Removal of unhealthy foods advertising before watershed- prevent brainwashing of children
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What are the current main uses for agricultural land?
35%- animal feed; 3%=seed+bioenergy; 62%= human food
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What proportion of croplands are used for livestock feed production?
33% (FAO, 2012).
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How will climate change affect agricultural production in 2050?
Depress yields in most countries (World Bank, 2008). in some areas by 50% e.g. E.Australia, Egypt & Saudi Arabia
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What proportion of their income do the world's poorest typically spend on food?
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How is the land available for growing crops per person changing?
Decreasing, 1990-0.3ha/person 2050 projection-0.17ha/person
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What proportion of crops grown today are fed to livestock?
40% (FAO,2012)
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What proportion of previously forested land in the Amazon is now occupied by cattle pastures and crops for livestock?
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How much do livestock contribute to global greenhouse gas emissions?
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Provide some reasons as to why beef has such a high ecological footprint
Large % = wasted- landfill; requires cooking at high heat for long time; packaging=more intensive than other foods; refrigeration is required for transportation and storage
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What are the main challenges for food security in the future?
Balancing demand with supply in an environmentally and socially sustainable way and also ensuring the world's poorest no longer go hungry.
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How much water does it take to produce 1 kg of beef?
16,000 litres
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Why is productive land being lost?
Urbanisation, desertification, soil salinity, erosion, climate change, competition for land for 1st generation biofuel production
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What is the yield gap? Why is it important to close this gap?
Where crop yields do not meet their full potential. Closing the gap for the 16 most major food crops could provide 2.3 billion tonnes more food for consumption.
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How much food is wasted in developing countries post-harvesting?
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Why might vertical farming be an ingenious solution to increasing competition for land?
Maximises the use of land available by expanding upwards(vertically), using hydroponics and other precision-technology strategies to grow crops with high yields reliably year round
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Why is Jackfruit a good crop to grow in the correct climates to make the most of land available
High in calories but low in cholesterol and saturated fat. Rich in potassium, calcium and Iron.- "Miracle food". On tree= 150-250 fruits, each weighing between 5 and 45 kilos. Mostly grown now in coastal areas and the foothills of the Himalayas.
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What is entomophagy? Why do some people think this will be the food of the future?
Eating of insects. Can be high in nutrients. Low carbon footprint? Crickets- high in calcium?
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Could the idea of a meat-free monday be successful in reducing environmental impact in the UK?
1 meatless monday- save 1.3 million tons C02 eq.- more than taking 5 million cars off the road
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What is the ethical argument for transitioning away from a meat-based diet?
Currently 60 million land animals= slaughtered each day. Queuing them would cover a distance of 384403km- distance to the moon and back 30 times.
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What does it mean to be overweight or obese?
Abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health (WHO). Body mass Index (BMI)- weight:height ratio kg/m2. BMI=25=overweight; BMI=30=Obes
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Why is rural-urban migration such a contributor to rising obesity levels?
Rural dwellers tend to be more self-reliant in obtaining foods- eat tradition diets high in grains, fruits and vegetables. In urban areas- people tend to rely on external forces for sustenance- shift to processed foods. (Popkin, 1993).
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Give some examples of campaigns in supermarkets to encourage healthier eating?
Traffic light system: indicates % of calories, fats, sugars,salts a product provides / recommended daily intake. Offering free fruit to children- 1/5 UK gov portions of fruit and veg+ children=less likely to ask parents to buy unhealthy products
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Why is a healthy diet so important?
1) Allows children to reach physical and mental potential 2)Allows everyday active and healthy functioning of all 3)Reduces the risks of non-communicable diseases
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How have obesity rates changed in developing countries?
1980-2008- China and Mexico- doubling of overweight/obesity rates. South Africa- increased by a third (higher rate than the UK). (Overseas development institute 2014 report
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Why is it difficult for governments to take action to decrease unhealthy diets? Provide an example of a time where the government did excise control. What was the impact on public health?
Food industry= v. influential. Lot of lobbying power. Morally:people may not want government telling them what they can/cannot eat. UK in WW2-rationing-poorest ate a balanced diet
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Describe some government campaigns aiming to improve public diets?
South Korea:increased fruit&veg consumption-publicity,social media and education campaign:training to prepare traditional low-fat, high veg meals. UK- Change4life 2013 campaign:short film clipsby Aardman(Wallace&Gromit).Web:mealplan+App:scan products
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Why is McDonalds in Denmark one of the healthiest in the world?
Government have banned transfats
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Card 2


What are the environmental and social benefits of local/seasonal food?


Lower food miles-lower energy use. Improved freshness and quality= better nutrition. Strengthens local culture and distinctiveness + farmers get a better price. Reduced packaging.

Card 3


What are the benefits of organic food?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Why is it important to reduce packaging?


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Card 5


Why does a diet high in animal products contributing to inefficient land use?


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