all of biology

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metabolism
all chemical reactions going on a cells
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metabolic rate
how quickly all the reactions are happening in the cells
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balanced diet
a diet that has the right amount of protien, fats, carbohydrates, vitimins, minerals, water and fibre and gives you enough energy
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deficiency disease
deficency cause by not eating enough of a particular nutrients.
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obese
being very over weight
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statins
medicinal drugs that reduce the amount of cholestrol made by the body
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micro organisms
small organisms, seen under a microscope
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pathogens
a microorganism that can cause an infectious disease
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bacteria
single cell micro organism
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virus
very infectious pathogen. can only reproduce in a host cell
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toxin
poison
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symptoms
how you feel when you have a disease
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painkillers
drug that stops you feeling pain
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antibiotics
chemical, usually made by fungi or bacteria, that can be used as medicine to kill other fungi or bacteria
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antibiotic resistant
mutated bacteria that can resist anti biotics
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natural selection
the survival of organisms better adapted to their enviroment
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immune system
your bodys system that fights the infection involving the white blood cells and antibodies
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antibody
special protien in the body that can bind to a particular antigen and destroy a particular pathogen
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anti gens
special protien on the surface of pathogenic cells. bing matching antibodies during the immune response
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immunity
after you have made antibodies to a pathogen in future without getting ill
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immunisation
medical procedure that involves injection dead or weakend pathogen onto a patient to stimulate the body to create antibodies
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epidemic
sudden break out of a disease that affects many people within a country
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pandemic
epidemic that sweeps across continents or the whole world
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stimulus
change in the enviroment, such as a tempreture change, that you respond to
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central nervous system (CNS)
the brain and spinal cord
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receptor
cell or sense organ that detects stimuli
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peripheral nervous system (PNS)
nerves carrying information from sense organs in the body to the CNS and from the CNS to effector
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neurone
cell specialised to carry electrical impulse. nerve cells
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reflex action
fast automatic response of teh body to a potentially dangerous stimulus, co-ordinated by the spinal cord
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synapse
small gap between neurones, or between a neurone and effector
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effector
organ such as a gland or muscle that responds to a stimulus
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hormone
chemical that is made by the gland
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secrete
produce a hormone in special cells of a gland
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gland
structue inside an organism that makes a useful structure
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target organ
organ or part of the body that responds to a particular hormone
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ion
charges particles
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sex hormone
hormones produced in the sex organs
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oestrogen
a female sex hormone involved in regulationg the menstrual cycle
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progestrone
a female sex hormone involved in maintaing the uterus lining
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mestrual cycle
monthly cycles in adult females
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FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
a female sex hormone, involved in making eggs mature in the ovaes
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LH
a female sex hormone involved in triggering ovulation
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contraception
a substance that prevents conception
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ovulation
release of a mature egg in the ovary
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in vitro fertilisation (IVF)
fertilisation carried out outside of the body
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tropism
plant growth response to a stimulus
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phototropic
plants response to the direction of light
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auxin
a plant hormone that causes shoots and roots to bend
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geotropic
plants response to the pull of gravity
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drug
chemicals that alters the way your brain or body works
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addiction
the body becomes dependent on the drug
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withdrawal symptoms
when you ae addicted and then stop taking it then yo will have symptoms such as headaches and tremors
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recreational drug
a drug that is taken for pleasure and has no medicinal purpose
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medicinal drug
a drug used for medicinal purposes
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performance enhancing drug
a drug that is used illigally by athelets
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thaldomide
drug used for morning sickness and sleeping pill but caused lots of birth defects
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clinical trial
testing a drug to make sure it has no side effects
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placebo
treatment with no active drug in it
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double blind trial
when the patient and doctor doesnt know which is the real drug
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adaptation
helps organs survive
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camouflage
colouring of animals to blend in to the surrondings
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needles
reduces leaves with a small surface area
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surface area
total amount of the surface of an organism
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spines
adaptation of a cactus to have to have leaves thats have less surface area
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extremphiles
organisms that can withstand extreme enviromental conditions
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resource
something that an organism needs to survive
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competition
the struggle between organisms to get enough resources to survive
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population
the number of organisms of a species in a given area
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distribution
the location where species are found over the total area where they occur
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pollutant
substance put into the enviroment by human activity, which is not normally there
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living indicator
indicator species scientist have learnt to use to help measure pollutions levels
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non-living indicator
specific equiptment that enables pollutions levels to be monitored
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indicator species
species that survive best at certain levels of pollution
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food chain
a way of showing what organisms eat and showing the flow of energy
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pyramid of biomass
a way of showing the biomass of organisms
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energy
the ability to do work in the body to maintain life
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effciency
carrying out a process, such as producing food with minimum loss of food energy
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microbe
microscopic organisms
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decay
microbes break down dead bodies or waste
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carbon cycle
a process by which carbon moves between the living and non-living world
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photosynthesis
chemical reaction in plants that builds gluecose from carbon dioxideand water using sunlight energy
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respiration
chemical reaction in living organisms that releases energy from gluecose, producing water and carbon dioxide
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gene
segment of DNA that is coded for particular characteristic
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chromosome
structure in a cell nucleus that consist of one molecule of DNA
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sexual reproduction
reproduction involving the joining of gametes from to parents
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asexual reproduction
reproductoin without gametes
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gametes
sex cells
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cutting
taking part of a plant and making new plant
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clones
genetically identical organisms
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tissue culture
growing whole new plants from small groups
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embryo transplant
methods of cloning for animals
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adult cell cloning
removing the nucleus from an unfertilised egg
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genetic engineering
changing the organisms genesbu inserting a gene from another organism
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enzyme
biological catalyst made of protien. they speed up chemical reactions
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DNA
cheicals that carries the genetic code
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genetic modification
changing an organisms genes
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herbicide
weed killer
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fertiliser
chemical added to soil to imprve mineral content and promote plant growth
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pesticide
chemical that is sprayed onto crop plant to kill pests such as insects
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yield
the amount of useful products
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classification
sorting organisms into groups
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kingdom
major subdivision in the classification of living organisms
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evolution
gradually change in an organism
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mutation
change in the structure of a gene may result in different characteristics
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species
group of organisms that are similar
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darwin
the scientist who came up with the theory of evolution through natural selection
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lamarck
the scientist who believe in the inheritance of aquired characteristics
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

metabolic rate

Back

how quickly all the reactions are happening in the cells

Card 3

Front

balanced diet

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

deficiency disease

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

obese

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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