Additional science - biology

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Are all cells the same?
no,there are different types
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do all organisms grow and develop in the same way?
no,for example plant and animal cells have different places of growth,how it grows and cell specialisation
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What are enzymes?
Proteins made by living cells which breaks down large molecules of food into smaller molecules. they are biological catalysts which speed up chemical reactions without taking part in the reaction
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are plant and animal cells the same?
they are fundamentally similar but do show some differences in structure.
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what does cell division enable?
cell division enables organisms to grow,replace worn out cells and repair damaged tissues
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how do plants and animals have different patterns of growth and development?
plants retain the ability to regenerate from undifferentiated cells more so than animals. animals tend to grow to a finite size more so than plants.
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what do embryonic, animal stem cells do?
keep the ability to differentiate into different types of cells and so have the potential for replacing damaged tissue.
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what are chemical reactions in cells controlled by?
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what do enzymes work best at?
a particular pH and temperature. usually temp of 40 degrees
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what does boiling do to an enzyme?
destroys enzyme action
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what is the ribosome?
site of protein synthesis
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what is the nucleus
controls the activities of the cell and hold the genetic information
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what is the large cell vacuole?
contains water and dissolved substance and gives cell support
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what is the chloroplast
contains chlorophyll which absorbs light energy for photosynthesis
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what is the cellulose cell wall
gives shape and structure support to cell
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what is the cytoplasm
fills the cell and many chemical reactions happen here
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what is the cell membrane
controls what goes in and out of the cell
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what is the mitochondrion
place where energy is made in the cell
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how many pairs do our body cells have?
23 pairs,or a total of 46 chromosomes-these 46 chromosomes are produced by MITOSIS
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why is the number of chromosomes halved?
to make the gametes, by MEIOSIS
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what is growth?
the permanent increase in size of an organism.
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what are the main stages of growth and development in a cell?
cell division(mitosis),cell expansion(mainly plants) and cell specialisation
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what can stem cells be used for?
to produce different tissues in the body, for example: new pancreas cells for diabetes, new nerve cells for patents with spinal injuries
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what are some of the ethical arguments for the using of stem cells medically
some will argue that embryos are human life and should not be used in any experimentation and others say that as tissues are not yet formed an embryo is not human. as with any new technology and advance in medicine it has to be thought through.
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name the two forms enzymes come in
builders: these make new chemicals we can use in our body. breakers: break bigger chemicals into smaller ones which can be used
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will enzymes speed up only one chemical reaction?
yes,because they are specific
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what happens to the enzyme as the temperature rises?
the enzyme and substrate molecules gain kinetic energy and so move faster. this increases the chance of a collision between them
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what happens when an enzymes shape when the temperature gets too hot?
the substrate no longer fits into the active site. the enzyme is denatured or destroyed and can't be reversed
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what can enzymes be used for?
in digestion in the gut,speed up process of digestion,washing powders,sweeteners in food,in the production of baby foods,in medicine
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which three structures are not present in animal cells but are in plant cells
chloroplast,large central vacuole,cellulose cell wall. The nucleus,cell membrane and cytoplasm are in both.
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diagram of a plant cell
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diagram of a animal cell
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Describe the features of a bacterial cell
dna is not contained in a nucleus,capsule flagella and pilus(not present in all bacteria). cell wall is not made of cellulose.Single-cell organisms
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diagram of a bacterial cell
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describe a yeast cell
cell wall not made of cellulose. Vacuole is smaller than the large central vacuole of a plant cell, and there may be more than one.Reproduce through asexual budding.Can survive with very little oxygen
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diagram of a yeast cell
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describe algal cell
vary in basic structure,most but not all have a flagellum,some have a cellulose cell wall,the eyespot and vacuole are often absent.
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diagram of a algal cell
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describe fat cells
have little cytoplasm, making space for fat store. use little energy so need fewer mitochondria. Expandable, up to 1000 times its original size.
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What do stem cells do during animal growth?
they develop into various types of cell
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which process allows damaged cells and tissues to be replaced?
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diagram of a virus
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describe virus cells.
can't reproduce without using another creatures cells to help it.can infect any living thing.Plant virus do not infect animal cells.
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finished cells:)x
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Card 2


do all organisms grow and develop in the same way?


no,for example plant and animal cells have different places of growth,how it grows and cell specialisation

Card 3


What are enzymes?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


are plant and animal cells the same?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


what does cell division enable?


Preview of the front of card 5
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