A2 Chapter 2 Revision Cards

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Define Self-Efficacy
'Self-efficacy is the level of self-confidence an individual has in a given situation (also called state confidence)'
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Self-Efficacy is influenced by 4 factors - identify these factors
Performance accomplishments, Vicarious experience, Verbal persuasion, Emotional arousal
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Define Anxiety
'A negative emotional state associated with fear and worry'
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Identify the different symptoms of anxiety
Cognitive, Somatic, Behavioural
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Identify the 2 types of anxiety
Trait & State
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Highlight how trait & state anxiety are linked
'an athlete with trait anxiety is more likely than others to experience state anxiety in situations that are perceived as threatening'
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Define Arousal
'the psychological state of alertness that prepares the body for action'
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Describe what is meant by the Drive Theory
Relationship between arousal and performance is linear. As arousal increases so does performance.
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Describe what is meant by the Inverted U Theory
As arousal increases, so does performance to an optimum point. When the athlete becomes over aroused, performance gradually decreases.
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Describe what is meant by the Catastrophe Theory
As arousal increases, so does performance to an optimum point. When the athlete becomes over aroused, performance dramatically decreases. (This is the catastrophe)
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Describe what is meant the IZOF/Individual Zones of optimum performance Theory
Different individuals have different optimum zones of arousal. The zones of arousal for each individual can differ between different activities. Takes into account that different athletes need different arousal levels to perform at their best.
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Describe the processing efficacy theory
anxiety may effect processing efficiency rather than task effectiveness. IE – Anxious athletes have to work harder to maintain the same level of performance compared to that of those that aren’t anxious.
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How does arousal effect elite athletes differently to beginners?
Arousal can have either a positive or negative effect on performance. Most elite athletes view pre competition arousal as a positive feeling of alertness, rather than as anxiety. Less experienced athletes have a negative response to a rise in arousal
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Define 'choking'
'the athlete’s inability to perform at their optimum level due to increased arousal levels and can result in sudden failure. Choking usually occurs when the athlete is overly concerned about what others think about their performance'
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Define Aggression
‘intent to harm outside the laws of the game’
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Define Hostile Aggression
'the intent to harm outside the rules of the game. The goal is to harm with arousal and anger involved'
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Define Instrumental Aggression
'intent to harm with the goal to win. This is used as a tactic and often known as ‘dirty play’ There is no anger involved'
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Define Assertion
‘controlled and channelled aggression’ – this should be encouraged in sport
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Explain instinct theory (Lorenz)
'aggression is an innate biological drive in all humans and sport gives an outlet for this aggression'
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Explain the frustration – aggression hypothesis (Dollard)
'(version of drive theory) states that blocking goals can cause frustration for the athlete, which then leads to aggression'
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Explain Social Learning Theory (Bandura)
' we learn to be aggressive by watching others and copying their behaviour'
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Explain Aggressive cue hypothesis (Berkowitz)
'The actual aggression can be initiated (started) by a particular incident in the game (a cue)'
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Describe Mental Rehearsal
Going through the game/match/competition in your mind and thinking about how you will respond to the different situations that occur to prevent you feeling anxious. Identify times when you might become aggressive/anxious&how you will deal with it.
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Describe Imagery/Visualisation
use imagery before a competition to review strategy and technique and create a sense of confidence. EG - Jonny Wilkinson
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Describe Self Talk
Can be used before and during competition. Involves convincing yourself that you are good enough to play or perform well – have you ever thought about giving up & then given up?..EG - what about an amateur runner nearing the end of a marathon?
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Describe Pre-game/performance routines
Give yourself specific tasks to do before a game/match. EG – a tennis player bouncing the ball a certain number of times before a serve.
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Describe PMR
tensing a muscle group for 5 seconds and then relaxing it for 5 seconds taking a deep breath and then repeating. Athletes visualise the tension leaving their muscles and feel relaxed.
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Describe Centring
Controlling physiological symptoms of stress by focusing on control of the diaphragm and deep breathing.
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Identify 3 ways to reduce aggression
Internal control of arousal levels , punishment of aggresive acts, positive reinforcement of positive behaviour/negative reinforcement of negative behaviour
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Explain Home advantage
teams playing in front of a home crowd/home pitch win on average 56-64% of matches.
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Explain Proximity Effect linking to home advantage
proximity effect – crowds that are close to the action ie, basketball, are said to increase the influence that the audience has on athletes.
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Define social facilitation
The influence that other people can have on performance. These people may include: opposition, teammates, officials, audience/spectators
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Define social inhibition
Negative effect of an audience on a performer.
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Explain Triplett's theory of social facilitation
found that cyclists performance increased by 30% when they were riding in a group of other cyclists. Other research has also confirmed that the presence of others tends to result in increased performance.
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Explain Ringlemann's theory of social facilitation
increase in performance only increased until the group size reached a certain point. When group size becomes too big, there is a tendency for some group members to lose motivation and rely on others, also known as social loafing.
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Explain Zajonc's theory of social facilitation
Links to dominant response. Audience + skilled performer = increased performance
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Explain Cotrell's Evaluation Apprehension Theory
just the presence of others does not affect performance. If the performer feels that those that are present are evaluating the performance, evaluation apprehension will occur >> Arousal increases and DResponse occurs
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Identify 6 strategies that can be used to help performers cope with crowds
selective attention, cognitive visualisation, over learn essential skills, use evluative practices, practice with simulated crowd noises, incorporate stress management into training.
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Describe how importance of competition can effect performance
More important the comp = generally higher level of state anxiety. (lots of pressure from external sources >> more media, spectators, people talking about the result.) Performers may feel less confident.
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Describe the theory of competative anxiety
competitive anxiety = ‘an individual’s tendency to perceive competitive situations as threatening, and respond to these situations by experiencing state anxiety.’
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When will novice athlets perform best?
perform best in low arousal environments – where nobody is evaluating the performance and competition importance is low
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Describe what will happen to novice athletes in the prescence of others
some may benefit from the presence of others. Some may choke
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How can the nature of the crowd have an effect on performance?
noisy & aggressive crowd = athlete may feel more anxious or become more aggressive.
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How can the proximity of the crowd effect athletes?
Some athletes may feel reassured, others may feel threatened - depends on perormfer and experience/personality.
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How does weather and climate effect performance?
the better the performer, the more effective they will be at dealing with these differing conditions.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Self-Efficacy is influenced by 4 factors - identify these factors


Performance accomplishments, Vicarious experience, Verbal persuasion, Emotional arousal

Card 3


Define Anxiety


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Identify the different symptoms of anxiety


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Identify the 2 types of anxiety


Preview of the front of card 5
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