4.2.2 POLYESTERS AND POLYAMIDES

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What is a condensation polymer?
a type of polymer formed through a series of condensation reactions
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Outline a condensation reaction
a reaction which two small molecules react together to form a larger molecule with the elimination of a smaller molecule
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Outline the formation of polyesters
di-carboxylic acid and diol/ OH loses H /COOH loses OH/ ester link / 2n-1 H2O
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How is terylene (PET) made? what are its uses?
ethane-1,2-diol/ benzene-1,4-dioic acid/ clothing - breaks down in sun
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How is poly(lactic acid) made? what are its uses?
2-hydroxypropanoic acid/ biodegradable (photodegradable C=O)
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Outline the formation of polyamides
condensation reaction between dicarboxylic acid and diamine/amide link formed/ water molecule n molecules and 2n-1 H2O
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How is nylon 6,6 made? what are its uses?
1,6-diaminohexane + hexane-1,6-dicarboxylic acid/ strong elastic abrasion resistant
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How is Kevlar made? what are its uses?
benzene-1,4-carboxylic acid + benzene-1,4-diamine// bullet proof vests, motorbike clothing, v strong
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Why is Kevlar so strong?
benzene rings are planar/ groups are at positions 1 and 4, produces a flat molecule/ chains can pack closely/ very strong H bonds
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What are addition polymers?
a type of polymer formed from joining two alkene monomers together/ no waste products/ double bond opens out
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How are polymers broken down?
hydrolysis
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How are polyamides usually broken down?
usually acid hydrolysis (alkali too slow)/ 2nH2O with H2SO4 catalyst
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How are polyesters usually broken down?
alkali hydrolysis/ di carboxylate salt formed and diol
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How are polyesters and polyamide bio degradable?
as they can be easily hydrolysed/ can be broken down my microorganisms/ synthetic ones take much longer tho
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What is the problem with addition polymers?
very stable so take v long to break down as won't hydrolyse
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Describe how chemists are trying to minimise environmental waste by developing biodegradable polymers
producing alternative polymers that biodegrade quickly and are renewable/ poly lactic acid (PLA) from fermentation of sugar cane/ rubbish bags/ disposable eating utensils etc.
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How are polyesters and polyamides photodegradable?
C=O absorbs UV radiation/ causes bond to break
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Outline a condensation reaction

Back

a reaction which two small molecules react together to form a larger molecule with the elimination of a smaller molecule

Card 3

Front

Outline the formation of polyesters

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How is terylene (PET) made? what are its uses?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How is poly(lactic acid) made? what are its uses?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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