110DT YR 1 REVISION

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  • Created by: vdagnan
  • Created on: 03-05-14 09:45
Name 3 functions of calcium
Structure and strength of bone, hardness of teeth, muscle contraction, transmission of nerve signals, blood clotting, metabolic reactions
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Where is it absorbed and how?
All sections of the small intestine, mainly the duodenum. Absorbed by passive diffusion and active transport
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What is required for the a active transport?
Active vitamin D, calcitriol
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What does calcitriol do?
Stimulates the production of Calmodulin, a calcium binding protein needed for absorption
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What are the inhibitors of calcium?
Oxalates, Phytic Acid and Unabsorbed Fats
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What are the enhancers of calcium absorption?
The active form of vitamin D with parathyroid hormone, lactose and other sugars in milk, proteins in milk (eg Casein), acidity in upper GI Tract
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Where are the major calcium pools in the body?
Intracellular calcium, Calcium in blood and extracellular tissues, bone calcium (majority is stored here)
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Name three good sources of calcium in the diet/
MIlk and milk products, fish with edible bones, tinned salmon, sardines etc, fortified cereal products, dark green leafy vegetables, nuts and wholegrains
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What is the RNi for adults (19+)?
700mg
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A higher RNI is recommended aged 11-18, what is it?
1000mg/day for boys 800mg/day for girls
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RNI's are assumed to take into account a percentage of absorption, what is that percentage?
30%
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The National Osteoporosis Society recommends a higher amount for women what is that figure?
1000-1500mg/day
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What is Hypercalcaemia?
High blood calcium levels (calcium levels are very tightly regulated in the body)
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Name two symptoms of Hypocalcaemia
tremors, excessive nervous system excitability, spasms, tetany (inability of muscles to relax, fatal if it is tetany of the larynx)
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Name two ways in which parathyroid hormone regulates (increases) calcium balance
1) Stimulates production of active vit D in kidneys 2) facilitates mobilization of calcium and phosphate from bone 3) maximises calcium reabsorption in the kidneys
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Name two ways in which Vitamin D (Calcitriol) regulates (increases) blood levels of calcium
1) Facilitates absorption from the small intestine 2) in conjunction with parathyroid hormone enhances the removal of calcium from bone
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What two ways does calcitonin regulate (reduce) blood calcium levels?
1) Suppresses the renal tubular absorption of calcium so more is lost in the urine 2) inhibits bone resorption (keeping the calcium in the bone)
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Explain the homeostasis of calcium in the body starting with rising blood levels of calium
thyroid gland releases calcitonin, reduces uptake by kidneys and keeps calcium in bones, when calcium blood levels fall, Parathyroid hormone is released from parathyroid gland, increased uptake by kidneys, production of vit D, increases absorption
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Name 3 signs of calcium deficiency
Osteoperosis, Rickets in children, tiredness and muscular dysfunction, bone function affected, neuromuscular excitability, tetany (periodic painful muscular spasms)
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Name 3 groups that are at risk of calcium deficiency
Vegans, lactose intolerent, steroid medication, Coeliac disease
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What are the functions of phosphorus?
1)Provide rigidity and strength in bone and teeth (as a calcium salt) 2) Energy for metabolism (as part of ATP) 3) part of cell membrane 4) part of nucleic acids
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Where and how is it absorbed?"
In the small intestine by active transport
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What percentage is absorbed?
60%
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Phosphorus is found throughout the body but 85% is found where?
in the skeleton
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What is the main mechanism for regulating Phos levels?
Changes in excretion by the kidneys
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Why is deficiency rare?
because all animal and plant cells contain phosphorus
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What is the RNI for adults?
700mg/day
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Name four good dietary sources
milk, cheese, meat and fish, eggs, bread, nuts and legumes, oats and carbonated drinkscreals
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Magnesium is the major mineral in all human tissue, 40-50% of the total bodys magnesium is found in soft tissues, where is the rest found?
50-60% is found in the skeleton
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Name 3 functions of magnesium
1) Cofactor in over 300 enxymatic steps in metabolism 2) Bone development 3) Nerve and muscle membrane excitability 4) Cellualr permeability 5) calcium metabolism
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How and where is it absorbed?
Absorbed in the small intestine and thought to include passive and active transport mechanisms (but not yet fully understood)
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What inhibits absorption
Phosphate (isoluble salt complexes), protein and fibre rich foods (phytates).
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What enhances absorption
Fructose
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What is the RNI for adults?
270mg/day for women and 300mg/day for men
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Name three good dietary sources
Whole grains, green leafy vegetables, legumes, meat, fish and tofu
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Dietary deficiency is rare but can be characterised by what symptoms?
muscles weakness, failure to thrive, neuromuscular dysfunction, tachycardia, coma
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Who, according to the national diet and nutrition suveys take in lower that the LRNI?
Women (20%), Teenage girls (+50%) boys (11-14) (20%)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Where is it absorbed and how?

Back

All sections of the small intestine, mainly the duodenum. Absorbed by passive diffusion and active transport

Card 3

Front

What is required for the a active transport?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does calcitriol do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the inhibitors of calcium?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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