Xylem and Phloem, translocation and transpiration in plants

---> Xylem tissue transport water and mineral ions in solution, they move substances up the plants from roots to the leaves. They use transpiration to do so.

-Xylem vessels are long, tube like substances formed from dead cells.

---> Phloem tissue transport organic substances like sugar, both up and down the plants. They do this through translocation.

-Sieve tube elements are living cells that form the tube for transporting solutes, they have no nucleus and few organelles ...

-Companion cells carry out the living functions for them e.g providing energy for active transport.

-Both of them are mass transport system, they move substances over a large distance.

---> Transpiration:  Loss of water from plant surface

- Water evaporates form the leaves.

- This creates tension (this pulls more water into the leaves).

- Water molecules are cohesive


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