Outline and evaluate the Working Memory Model (12 marks)
Baddeley and Hitch proposed that memory has 4 components. The central executive, phonological loop, visuo-spatial sketchpad and the episodic buffer. The central executive decides how to share out and direct attention to incoming information. It allocates certain information to it’s two slave systems; the phonological loop is one of these and is a maintenance rehearsal system for verbal information. This is sub-divided into two other components, the phonological store (inner ear), which holds acoustic information, and the articulatory process (inner voice), which allows for sub vocal rehearsal (words you are about to say). The visuo-spatial sketchpad is the 2nd slave system. It is responsible for storing visual and spatial information. Finally, there is the episodic buffer. This component takes information from different sources and integrates them together. It was added to the model in 2000 and is another way of allocating information - similar to the central executive.
One weakness of the Working Memory Model is that all evidence for this memory model comes from brain damaged individuals, making it impossible to make comparisons between before and after. This makes the evidence for the model less valid.
A strength of the model was shown by Bunge. He presented that the central executive was much more active during double tasks which supports the idea of the central…