Unit 1 important notes:


Rates of a reaction:

The (average) rate of a reaction is the measure of volume change in a certain period of time. This gives us the formula:

We normally use this formula when we receive a set of results from an experiment to determine the rate.

Rates on a graph:

When we look at a graph of a rate, if it is going up on the graph, the reaction is still going. Th steeper the incline the faster the reaction is. When the line goes flat, it means that the reaction has stopped.

Nuclide notation:

Nuclide notation is when we write an element in a form which allows us to instantly get the mass number and atomic number from an element.

An example of nuclide notation would be this:

Other forms:

Atoms can also be shown as carbon-14, C-14 and 14C, try not to use the last one though, as it can lead to some confusion.


An isotope is a molecule which has the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons…


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