DNA carries all our inherited information and contains the genetic code. The genome is all the DNA of an individual. The proteome is all the proteins produced from that DNA. Mutations are changes in the DNA structure that may be tiny or involve the obliteration or duplication of an entire chromosome. Some can have severe effects.
They can increase the gene pool of a population by increasing the amount of alleles available. If a mutation is an advantageous feature, the frequency of the allele will increase. If it isn't, natural selection will remove it from the gene pool. These changes may lead to the evolution of a new species.
Gene families and haemoglobin.
For about half of your genes there is a single copy on each chromosome in a homologous pair. However there are…