Speciation - formation of a new species.
There are two types; Allopatric and Sympatric.
Allopatric speciation - when a geographical barrier causes the formation of a new species.
1. Parent Population can move freely around area. Free gene movement between individuals (can interbreed)
2. Geographical isolation (e.g. mountain range/Ocean);
Parents part of population causing geographical barrier. Isolated groups prevented from interbreeding with parent population
3. Different selective pressures (e.g. climate);
Certain random mutations favoured which leads to natural selection; now a sub species.
4. If barrier remains (e.g. B) sub-species continues to evolve differently due to…