Birth and fertility Rates
Birth rates has decreased, Declining infant morality, The total fertility rate has decreased by over 50%, Dual income/ earner families, Changing attitudes towards family life.
Changing birth rates
Child morality has declined due to better nutrrition, sanitation and vacination.
Parents do not need to have lots of children to ensure survival, this means less children are being born
Standards of living increased, childhood is being expected and more valued as children have become more expensive
Changing attitudes towards womens roles. They began to prioritise education and careers leading them to have fewer children or none at all.
Changing Fertility rates
Reliable birth control - parents are able to have a control over how many children they have
Increased educational careers - have lead to women delaying children
Dual Earner families - may put of children until their 40s which reduces the amout of children they have, if they can have any at all
Changing attitudes towards family life - careers changes
Births outside of marraige
Changing attitudes towards family life - led to many children being born ouitside of marraige
One in three children are born outside marraige
Lone parent families have been stigmaitised and many claim they are the source of social problems with defiant behaviour…