Population dynamics

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Demographics= the study of population

Birth rate= the number of babies born alive per 1000 people per year

Death rate= the number of people who die per 1000 people per year

Replacement level= the number of children required to be born by a woman to keep the population stable (2.1)

Nateral increase/ decreas= the birth rate- the death rate of a population- given as a %

Infant mortality= The number of children under the age of one who die per 100 births

What causes brith rates to increase in some places:

- there is a high infant mortality rate so people have more children in expectation that some of them will not survive

- a culteral norm

- contaception is either unavailable, too expensive or people are un educated about it

- people marry younder so have more fertile years 

- children play an important role in contributing domestically and/or fanacially

- woman are less highly educated so focus more on family rather than a career

What causes birth rates to icrease in some places:

- birth conrol is readily available

- children are a financial drain

- the age of getting married is high so less fertile years

- low infant mortality rate so no need to have more children they are all expected to reach adulthood

- woman are well educated and emanciapated so often delay having children to focus on their careers

- labour laws mean children cannot work

- state and private pension schemes mean adults are not dependant on their children during retirement

- a culteral norm

Population trends:

- until recently the worlds growth has been growing exponentially. This means growth has been grwoing more and more rapidly

- demographers and governments are worried about the fact population has been growing so rapidly because we will run out of th resources to provide for so many people eg. food and water. Also, the more poeple the higher the rate of global warming.

- death rates are falling even in countries with low levels of development because sanitation and health care is improving

The demographic transition model:

The demographic transition model shows how populations change over time or how the country develops



Where? Middle east

Status? low/middle income, stage 2 of the demographic transition model

Pop stats?

  • Birth rate- 32
  • Death rate- 6.8
  • Life expectancy- 63
  • Natural increase- 2.6%
  • Fertility rate- 6.7

Why? Lots of woman marry young giving them more time to have children (50% of woman marry before 18). There is little/no knowledge of contraception. Children provide an income as laws allow children to work.


Where? Eurasia

Status? Middle income, stage 5 of the demographic transition model

Pop stats?

  • Birth rate- 12.3
  • Death rate- 14
  • Natural decrease -0.2%
  • Life expectany- 60 (men) 71 (woman)
  • Fertility rate: 2.1

Why? There is a very high abortion rate ( from 3.1 million pregnancys 1.6 million were terminated). There is a big drinking problem (the average man consumes 50 bottles of…


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