Moral Argument


Moral Argument 


People have a sense of morality in life. Aquinas says we experience true, noble and good in this world. The cause of these 3 experiences is God. 


In "Critique of Practical Reason," Kant believes that people should and shouldn't act morally because of "duty for duty's sake." If we follow this, we are virtuous. Kant describes this as a categorical imperative, with 3 key elements:

  • Universalisation 
  • Means to an end 
  • Kingdom of ends 

Kant says we have a goal that we ought to aim for - Summon Bonum "the highest good." Kant assumes that we must be part of the demand of duty and obligation on us for "duty for dutys sake"/"ought implies can" - if we can perform a duty, we should do it to achieve summon bonum. In a perfect world, behaving morally would lead to happiness, but this does not happen as not everyone behaves morally. 

Kant assumes that free will, God and immortality justify people striving to achieve the highest good. Kant believed that God exists because there needs to be a being that is higher than us to set authority so we can gain morally from him and follow him. 


Freud gives 3 structures of the mind that have a role in our moral decision making. 

  • Ego - balances the two other part of the mind, controlling the Id from going chaotic. 
  • Id - the fun part of the brain that has to be controlled bu the ego so


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