Extracting metals

rock that contains enough of a metal or a metal compound to make it worth extracting the metal called an ore

the ore needs to concentrated before it is extracted

a few unreactive metals eg gold are found in the Earth as the metal

most metals are found as compounds so then the metals have to be extracted by chemical reactions

metals can be extracted from compounds by displacement using a more reactive element

less reactive metals can be extracted from their oxides by heating carbon

a reduction reactive takes place as carbon removes the oxygen from the oxide produce the metal

Iron and steels

iron oxide is reduced at high temp in a blast furnace using carbon

the iron produce contains about 96% iron

the impurities make is hard and brittle and so it has only a few uses as cast iron

most iron is used to make steels

steels are alloys or iron with carbon and other elements 

the amounts of carbon and other elements are carefully adjusted when making steels

low carbon steels are easily shaped and high-carbon steels are hard

stainless steel for example contain larger quantities of other metals, they resist corrosion

Aliminium and titanium

aliminium has low density and is resistant to corrosion

it has to be extracted by electrolysis of molten aluminium oxide, it…


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