- Caused by Myobacterium Bovis/Tuberculosis.
- Spread through droplets, travel airborne, resistant bacterium - survives when dry for several weeks.
- Need close contact with infected person for a long time.
- Transmitted especially between those in poverty/overcrowded conditions, those in long-term care facilities, those in TB ridden countries, those with reduced immunity
- Grows and divides in upper regions of lungs, feeds off oxygen. White blood cells attack at infection site, ingest bacteria. Leads to inflammation, lymph nodes draining lungs. This is PRIMARY INFECTION.
- POST-PRIMARY TUBERCULOSIS - when bacteria re-emerge causing a second infection, occurs in adults, arises in upper regions of lungs and creates scar tissue.
- Victim coughs up damaged lung tissue with blood and the TB can spread to fatal consequences.
- Unclear cause, but arises from scarring on the epithelium of the lungs making them irreversibly thickened.
- The thickening means that oxygen cannot efficiently diffuse into the blood from the air.
- This affects diffusion as the time and pathways for it to happen are lengthened. There is also a reduced lung volume or capacity.
- This affects the elasticity of the lungs as they are not fully ventilated as it is difficult to breathe out. Elasticity plays an important part in ventilation as the lungs must spring back like a balloon in order to expel the air contained within them, which elasticity allows to happen.
- There are four symptoms of PF: shortness of breath, a chronic, dry cough, fatigue, and…