Freedom - If I am to act morally then I must be capable of exercising autonomy of the will.
(the opposite being heteronomy - that something is right because it satisifies some desire, emotion, goal or obligation)
There are two sorts of freedom according to Kant:
- free actions, following the correct process of reasoning and done by duty not hindered by emotions, desires etc.
- actions free from external factors (eg. someone holding a gun to my head)
Reason must not be subservient to anything else even if this is the happiest of the majority.
Good Will - the sense of moral obligation is to be found in the mind not by considering experience.
'it is impossible to concieve anything at all in the world, which can be taken to as good without qualification, except a good will'.
It is only the good will which counts and which is the starting point for ethics. Consequences count for nothing.
The morality of an action must be…