1. Van der Waal's
2. Permanent Dipole
3. Hydrogen Bonding.
THe3 properties, such as boiling point and melting points of molecules are dependant on inter-molecular forces, since these forces have to be considered if we are to change between states.
Van der Waal's
These forces arise because electrons in atoms or molecules are constantly moving and at very high speeds. At any instant intime, it is possible the one side of the atom or molecules has a greater share of the electrons.
When this happens, on instantaneous electric dipple occurs. This temporary state caused by tthe imbalance of electrons provides a negative end of a dipole and a positive one.
This temporary dipole then induces the same imbalance in its neighbouring molecules, which hence are now attracted to one another. This temprary inter-molecular force is often refered to as Van der Waal's force.
The strength of a Van der Waal's force is determined by…