Existential Security Theory

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  • norris and ingelhart reject the religious market theory on grounds that it only applies to EU and USA
  • N+I argue that the reason why we have variation between societies is because there are different degrees of existential security. this is the feeling that society is secure enough that it can be taken for granted.
  • Religion meets a need of security  and therefore societies where people feel secure have low participation rates whilst societies with no or little security have high participation rates.
  • factors that also affect the feeling of security are famine or disasters, war, financial situations etc.
  • participation levels vary throughout time depending on current situations and the current societies.
  • demand is highest in low income societies which is why poor people in 3rd world countries remain


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