- Created by: Francesca C
- Created on: 15-10-18 11:54
The education system followed in various countries around the world are quite different & the reasons for these differences are generally historic. Systems have arisen out of specific needs at specific times; e.g. the teaching of reading is linked to the development of industry and the need for workers to be able to follow written instructions. Also ideological reasons for development of education - based on beliefs current at time about needs of children. Many sociologists critical of education system - assosciated with control more than educating children.
Education - process collected knowledge of a culture passed on. UK all children 5-18 must receive an education - do not necessarily have to go to school - home schooling.
- All societies educate children - parents in home or normal daily activity. Skills for adulthood.
- Modern societies - highly developed education systems - professional educators working in complex institutions.
- Prepares pupils for public examinations.
- Significant debate at all levels of society - purpose of education - essential knowledge passed on.
- Debates influenced by beliefs of people in power and their beliefs about knowledge given to children.
Historical reasons for the development of education system:
- Number of historical and social reasons for an education system & why govs fund schools and colleges.
- Child labour - if children are in school then they are protected from exploitation by employers of child labour.
- Vocationalism - children can be trained for work & needs of employers.
- Public Health - children from poorer families can be offered basic nutrition and encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle.
- Economic Trade - British manufacturing & business requires a trained workforce if to maintain position as world leader in trade.
- Military Capacity - Britain historically a military nation engaged in frequent wars abroad - required soldiers with basic education and good standard of health.
- Training in cultural values - requirement of schools to promote well-being and cultures of children - most educational legislations.
- Religious reasons - thought if children could be taught to read the Bible, would improve moral behaviour.
Structural theory viewpoints - education - role it plays in society - top-down.
- Functionalism - not critical of system. Education - tool - society sorts out children - most able take on best jobs. Education - meritocratic - ladder of opportunity for best students to achieve.
- Marxism - education - source of social inequality - tool - unequal social system. Inequality socialises people into accepting some have more access to power and wealth.
- Feminism - system oppressing women - exists to socialise children into traditional gender patterns - perpetuate gender inequality.
Social action theories - relationships within school, how influence attainment. bottom-up.
- Interactionism - relationship between teachers and pupils, and pupils. How teachers label pupils as succesful or not, impact labelling has on self-identity & self-esteem of pupils. Can appear deterministic - if suggests children not active participants in process.
- Postmodernists - focus on what happens within schools. Teachers & pupils - 'constructors' of…