Dement and Kleitman

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  • association between REM/Non-REM and dreaming
  • positive correlation between subjective duration of dream and duration of REM
  • REM is associated with dream context


  • Controlled lab experiment (sleep lab)
  • also correlation


  • 7 males and 2 females (5 studied intensely)
  • self select, ALL avoided coffee/alcohol throughout
  • given time to get used to environment
  • BUT REAL SAMPLE IS 351 AWAKENINGS (5.7 per night)


  • 1st Aim: Repeated measures, IV = REM or Non-Rem, DV = dreaming?
  • 2nd Aim: Repeated measures, IV= duration of REM (5/15 minutes) DV = can they guess time?


  • tested individually, reported a little before bed time, asked to follow normal daily routines
  • slept with electrodes attached to EEG/EOG
  • 1st Aim: Some pp were woken up randomly, some 3 times in REM then 3 times in Non-REM, each time woken up by a doorbell, stated if they'd been dreaming into tape recorder
  • 2nd Aim: Same procedure but woken up 5 or 15 minutes into REM, asked if they'd been dreaming and how long for?
  • 3rd Aim: used EOG readings for 4 eye movements (vertical, horizontal, both, no movement), woken up and asked what they were dreaming about


  • each pp. had distinct dreaming/sleep patterns, average REM = 20 minutes which occured every 90 minutes. 
  • If woken up in non-REM would quickly go back to sleep, if in REM wouldn't return to REM
  • 1st Aim: in REM 152/191 dreams were recalled whereas in non-REM only 11/160 recalled, the


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