Crude Oil

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Crude Oil



Anaerobically (cut off oxygen supply) decomposed from remains of plants and animals

Complex mixture of different hydrocarbons

Non-renewable (finite) resource

Used as raw material in production of fossil fuels

Useless until separated by fractional distillation


Fractional Distillation


- Done on industrial scale in fractionating column

Different fractions have different boiling points

-Each fraction contains molecules with similar number of carbon atoms – so     similar boiling points

HOT at the BOTTOM and COLD at the TOP

Condenses as fractions according to boiling points


Main Fractions and Uses


Top to Bottom


1.    Refinery Gases > LPG, domestic heating and cooking

2.    Gasoline > petrol fuel for cars

3.    Kerosene > fuel for aviation, domestic heating, oil paraffin for small heaters and lamps

4.    Diesel Fuel > fuel for buses, lorries, railway engine, cars. Cracked to make more petrol

5.    Fuel Oil > ships boilers and industrial heating

6.    Bitumen> mixed with rock chippings


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