Class Differences


Carl Bereiter and Siegfried Engelmann (1966)

Laguage used in lower class families is deficient.

LOWER CLASS- gestures, single words, disjointed phrases. Incapable of explaining, describing, enquring or comparing.

Basil Bernstein (1975)

RESTRICTED CODE- working class. Limited vocabulary. Short, unfinished, gramatically simple sentences. Predictable gesture/ one word answer.

ELABORATED CODE- middle class. Longer, gramatically complex sentences. Communicate abstract ideas. Context free. Better opportunities.

Attitudes and Values

Parents attitudes are key in affecting educational achievement.

Working class parents are less ambitious.

Leon Feinstein(1998)- Working class parents lack of interest was the main reason for their childs under-achievement.

Herbert Hyman (1967)- The values and beliefs of lower class…


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