Class Differentiation - Labelling Theory


Labelling Approach to Educational Achievement 

Labelling theory is part of the interactionism approach

Stages of labelling:

1) Teacher forms an impression of the student

2) Pupil is labelled

3) Pupil becomes aware of the label

4) Pupil's self concept changes

5) Pupil starts to live up to the label provided

6) Behaviour reinforces the label and therefore it persists

Why does labelling occur?

Becker - The Ideal Pupil 

Teachers have a concept of the 'ideal pupil' students are labelled on how close they come to this.

This can be negative or possitive.

How does labelling effect achievement?

Dunne and Gazeley (2008)

The underachievement of working class pupils has been normalised.

Teachers therefore believe that they cannot alter


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