Chemistry - Metals

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Metals :


Reactions of metals with cold water:  (only potassium sodium calcium magnesium) 

1. metal + water ---> metal hydroxide + hydrogen   (COLD WATER)

 Potassium -> extremely vigorous and explosive with purple flame
 Sodium -> very vigorous and may catch fire
 Calcium -> quite reactive with cold water
Magnesium -> very slow reaction

2. Reactions with steam:
   Metal + steam ---> Metal oxide + hydrogen 

Potasium sodium calcium
Magnesium -> very fast reaction with a bright white flame
Zinc -> quite slow reaction
Iron -> very slow reaction

Lead, copper and silver cannot react with cold water or steam. (unreactive metals) 

9. Reactions with dilute hydrochloric acid:

metal + dilute hydrochloric acid ---> metal chloride + hydrogen 

K --> explosive and violent
Na --> very vigorous reaction
Ca -> vigorous
Mg -> very fast
Zn - Quite reactive
Fe -> moderate reactive
Pb -> extremely slow reaction
Cu -> no reaction
Ag -> no reaction

Only metals above hydrogen can react with hydrochloric acid.  

8. Reduction of metal oxides with carbon:
metal oxide + carbon ---> metal + co2 / co 

Not reduced by carbon: 

 Potassium oxide
 Sodium oxide
Calcium oxide
Magnesium oxide 

Reduced by carbon:
Aluminium oxide
Zinc oxide
Iron oxide
Lead oxide
Copper oxide

Reduced by heating:
Silver oxide  

The oxides above zinc in the reactivity series are not reduced by carbon.
These oxides are so stable that they can only be reduced by passing electricity through them.

3. Reduction of metal oxides with hydrogen:


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