Chemistry (Hard Water, limescale, scum)

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  • Created by: Jasmine
  • Created on: 09-05-13 19:33


  • calcium/magnesium ions
  • dissolved from minerals in the ground

How scum is formed:

  • stearate ions in soap react with the calcium/magnesium ions to form insoluble calcium stearate

Why scum is a problem:

  • have to use more soap- expensive
  • scum in washing- may damage fabrics


  • deposits of insoluble calcium carbonate on the inside of hot water pipes and other heating elements

How limescale forms:

  • when hard water is heated, soluble calcium hydrogen…


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