Chapter 7 - Animal nutrition

  • Created by: E456
  • Created on: 14-03-17 16:35


  • Most animals need seven types of nutrient in their diet;
    • carbohydrates
    • proteins
    • fats
    • vitamins
    • minerals
    • water
    • fibre
  • A diet which contains all of these things, in the correct amounts and proportions, is called a balanced diet
  • Food is needed for energy and nutrient supply. 
  • Vitamins are organic substances which are only needed in tiny amounts. 
  • Minerals are inorganic substances, which are only needed in small amounts. 
  • Fibre helps to keep the alimentary canal working properly. 
  • peristalsis= when food moves along the alimentary canal because of the muscles contracting and relaxing, squeezing it along. 
  • saturated fat= fat found in animal foods.
  • coronary heart disease= when plaque and fatty deposists build up inside the coronary arteries. These can cause a blood clot, which results in a heart attack. 
  • kwashiorkor= malnutrition caused by the lack of protein in the diet. 
  • marasmus= malnutrition caused by severe shortage of energy in the diet. 


  • alimentary canal= long tube running from one end of a mammal's body to the other. 
  • Amylase breaks down starch. Simple sugars are produced.
  • Protease breaks down protein. Amino aicds are produced.
  • Lipase breaks down fat. Fatty acids and glycerol are produced. 
  • mechanical digestion= the breakdown of food into smaller pieces without chemical change due to the food molecules.
  • chemical digestion= the breakdown of large insoluble molecules into small soluble molecules. 
  • ingestion= taking of substances, e.g. food and drink, into the body through the mouth. 
  • digestion= large, insoluble molecules of food are broken down to small molecules.
  • absorption= the movement of small food molecules and ions through the wall of the intestine into the blood. 
  • egestion= the passing out of food that has not been digested or absorbed, as faeces, through the anus. 


  • The root of the tooth is embedded in the gum. 
  • The part of the tooth which can be seen is the crown. 
  • The crown is covered by enamel. Enamel is the hardest substance made by animals; however, it can be dissolved by acids.
  • Dentine is a layer of like-bone under enamel. It is quite hard.
  • The pulp cavity is in the middle of the tooth. It contains nerves and blood vessels; these supply the cytoplasm in the dentine with food and oxygen. 
  • Cement covers…


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