Cellular Structure

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Cellular Ultrastructure

Eukaryotic Cells: with nucleus

Cytoplasm: Contains enzymes for glycolosis and other metabolic reactions together with amino acids, salts, sugars and nucleotides as well as everything else needed by a cell.

Nucleus: Largest organelle surrounded by nuclear envelope which is a double membrane with nuclear pores, holes containing proteins that control exit of substances. Interior is called nucleoplasm, this is full of chromatin.

Mitochondria: Sausage-shaped organelle, this is where aerobic respiration takes place. Surrounded by double membrane, outer is simple and permeable whilst inner is folded into cristae, which give it a large surface area. The space inside the inner membrane is known as the matrix and contains circular DNA strands; it is also studded with stalked particles, the site of ATP synthesis.

Ribosomes: Smallest and most numerous of cell organelles, sites of protein synthesis. Composed of protein and RNA and are manufactured in nucleolus of nucleus. Either found free in cytoplasm where they make protein for cells use or on RER where they make proteins for export. 80S type.

SER: Series of membrane channels involved in synthesis and transport of materials, mainly lipids needed by cell.

RER: Same as above, but


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