Cells and Transport

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  • Created by: Eesha Dev
  • Created on: 06-12-15 12:54

Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes

  • eukaryotes have a nucleus and other cell bound organelles
  • prokaryotes do not have a nucleus or mitochondria. Instead, they have a plasma-ring of DNA
  • eukaryotes are much bigger
  • eukaryotes are animals, plants, algae (protoctista), fungi
  • prokaryotes are bacteria

Animal and Plant Organelles

  • nucleus - contains genetic material and controls activities of cell
  • cell membrane - controls substances that go in and out. Holds cell and protects
  • cytoplasm - jelly like substance where chemical reactions occur
  • mitochondria - provides energy (ATP) 
  • ribosomes - provides and makes proteins
  • vesicles - take things in or releases

Extra Plant Organelles

  • cell wall - keeps structure of cell and supports/protects
  • chloroplasts - contains green pigment (chlorophyll) to absorb light energy (photosynthesis)
  • vacuole - stores water and minerals to keep cell firm (contains cell sap)

Specialist Cells

  • systems supply the cell's needs and remove waste products
  • they keep internal environement surrounding cell constant
  • specialist cells are adapted to a particular function
  • tissues are groups of specialist cells
  • tissues fold together to make an organ
  • a system is different organs working together

Examples of specialised cells are root hair cell, palisade cell, nerve cell, fat cells, sperm cell.

Cell Differentiation

Differentiation is the process of a cell changing from one cell type to another, for example, becoming from a less specialised cell type to a more specialised cell type

  • an undifferentiated cell is one which is not specialised (yet)
  • a differentiatied cell is one which has become specialised

Stem Cells

Stem cells are a class of undifferentiated cells that are able to differentiate into specialised cell types

Embryonic Stem Cells

  • embryonic stem cells can turn into any specialised cell. They can be harvested from donated embryos formed by invitro fertilisation (IVF)
  • an embryonic stem cell is removed from an embryo and cultured to give a mass of undifferentiated stem cells.
  • Then they can be cultured to develop new differentiated tissues or organs

Adult Stem Cells

  • adult stem cells are found in the blood and bone marrow. They can become many specialised cells (but not as many as embryonic). 
  • adult stem cells are removed from tissue in blood and bone marrow and cultured to give a mass of them
  • then they are further cultured to develop new tissue or organs or they are injected back inside patient to produce new tissue where needed.



  • resolution is how…


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