Cell specialisation


Cell Specialisation (
Cells specialise by undergoing differentiation: a process that involves the cell gaining new sub-cellular structures in order for it to be suited to its role. Cells can either differentiate once early on or have the ability to differentiate their whole life (these are called stem cells). In animals, most cells only differentiate once, but in plants many cells retain the ability.
Examples of specialised cells in animals
1. Sperm cells: specialised to carry the male’s DNA to the egg cell (ovum) for successful
● Streamlined head and long tail to aid swimming
● Many mitochondria (where respiration happens) which supply the energy to allow
the cell to move
● The acrosome (top of the head) has digestive enzymes which break down the outer
layers of membrane of the egg cell
2. Nerve cells: specialised to transmit electrical signals quickly from…


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