carbohydrates

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Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are made up of Monosaccharides.

1. Most carbohydrates are polymers

2. All carbohydrates contain the elements C,H and O

3. Monomers made from monosaccharides. e.g. glucose, fructose and galactose.

Monosaccharides join together to form Disaccharides and Polysaccharides

1. Jointed together by condensation reactions

2. During condensation reaction – molecule of water is released and a glycosidic bond forms between the two monosaccharides

3. A disaccharide is formed when two monosaccharides join together

Disaccharides and Polysaccharides are broken down during digestion

· Usually present food that we eat, need to be able to break them down. Enzymes released in intestal epithelium that hydrolyse (break down) disaccharides and polysaccharides.

· Maltose hydrolysed by maltase makes glucose and glucose

· Sucrose hydrolysed by sucrase makes glucose and fructose

· Lactose hydrolysed

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