biology B1 (2)

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  • Created by: haidee
  • Created on: 01-04-12 20:58

Adaptation

  • different kinds of animals live in different places
  • they live, grow and reproduce in places where conditions are suitable
  • each organism's habitat must provide it with everything it needs
  • animals have special features called adaptations to enable them to survive in different environments
  • the arctic fox is adapted to live in cold conditions while the fennec fox lives in the Sahara desert
  • the arctic fox has thicker fur then the fennec fox
  • the fur trap the air, which is a poor conductor of heart, close to the skin
  • the reduces the loss of heart, close to the skin
  • this is called insulation
  • the fennec fox has bigger ears then the arctic fox
  • the ears are supplied with a very good blood supply with many blood vessels near the surface of the skin
  • this increases the surface area through which heat is lost by radiation
  • the arctic fox's coat is white while the fennec fox's coat is brown
  • both animals are camouflaged to blend in with their surroundings
  • this enables them to hide from their prey, while hunting
  • cold conditions: thick fur- to trap air, thick fat layer- to reduce heat loss, big body (small surface area to volume ratio) to reduce heat loss, small ears, able to live on both land and sea- swim from one ice-shelf to another, eat meat or fish- vegetation almost non-existent
  • hot conditions: thin fur or thick hair- traps little air and protects from sunburn, humps contains fatty tissue to use when food is scarce, large surface area to volume ratio (small body)- to loss heat, small ears lined with fur- to keep out dust from ear canals, acute hearing, can survive without water for long periods of time- little water supply, can take in large amounts of water in small amounts of time- to rehydrate quickly as little water

Adaptations in plants

  • there are some places that plants simply can't grow, for example in deep oceans where light cannot penetrate or the very cold areas in the antarctic
  • almost everywhere else, including very hot dry areas of the world plants can be found growing successfully
  • carbon dioxide is taken into the leaf from the air through small pores in the leaf called the stomata
  • the pores also allow oxygen produced by photosynthesis to move out of the leaf
  • water is absorbed through the roots and moves through the xylem vessels
  • some of the water is used in photosynthesis and some lost through the leaves by diffusion
  • the water will evaporate from the spongy mesophyll cells in the leaf into the space below the stomata
  • as the humidity builds up in the space it will move by diffusion through the stomata out of the leaf down a concentration inside the leaf, to an area of lower water concentration outside the leaf
  • light is absorbed by the chlorophyll molecules in the leaf and used to convert water and carbon dioxide into glucose
  • the rate at which the plant loses water varies in different conditions
  • the…

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