AS SNAB- Carbohydrates

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All composed of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. Three main groups- monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides Monosaccharides- single sugar molecules containing 1 Oxygen atom and 2 Hydrogen atoms for each Carbon. (C H2 O)n (n= number of sugars) e.g. Triose (n=3) C3H6O3 Disaccharides are two joined monosacs. Joined in a condensation reaction-H2O released Link between two monosacs is covalent bond called glycosidic bond (C6 H10 O5)n Glucose+ Fructose = Sucrose (stored in plants e.g. sugar beet/cane) Glucose+ Galactose= Lactose (main carbohydrate of milk) Glucose+ Glucose= Maltose (found in germinating seeds e.g. barley) Made of many monosacs joined with glycosidic bonds- many condensation reactions- lots H2O released. 3-10 monosacs = oligosaccharides 11+ monosacs= polysaccharides No sweet taste Can form compact molecules, ideal for storage in cells. Glycosidic bonds broken in hydrolysis reaction. Not very water soluble- don’t interfere cellular functions/ disrupt osmotic balance. Starch important energy store…

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