5. proteins


What are proteins made from? 

  • proteins are polymers
  • monomers of proteins are amino acids
  • a dipeptide is formed when two amino acids join together
  • a polypeptide is formed when 2 or more amino acids joined together

Amino Acid Structure

  • all have the same general structure-
    • a carboxyl group (-COOH) 
    • an amine group (-NH2) attached to a carbon atom
    • an R group is what varies the amino acids from each other
      • All amino acids contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen, some contain sulfur

Dipeptide and Polypeptide Formation

  • amino acids are joined together by peptide bonds
  • a molecule of water is released in the condensation reaction
  • the reverse adds a molecule of water to break a peptide bond (hydrolysis)

Protein Structure 

  • proteins are big and complicated molecules
  • there are 4 layers to proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary
  • these layers are


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