- process in which more and more of life is conducted on the basis of abstract calculation of the means needed to achieve defined ends.
- the means to achieve.
- Benjamin franklin: "time is money"
- the capitalist enterprise had its bureaucracy
- and so did all the other organisations especially the state
- bureaucracy has a down side
- formal and substantie rationality
- a way to make things efficent
- people are higher in the bureaucracy becasue of their talents and gifts... hire on their merit.
- can have a life of its own
- formal and substantive rationality
- formal the real wat and the way that is most efficient and fair - looks good on paper.
- downside is substantive.
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Problem with Rationalisation:
- the supremacy of rationality is in some ways regrettable
- rationalisation, including the sprea of bureaucratic and economic rationaliy, leads to dienchantment (dissapointment)
- with rationalism and bureaucracy we lose enchantment of the world - things are reduced such as spiritual things and more people live in shock.
- capitalism and rationalisation put us in a place where we cant be human and that we are in a cage and cant get out.
- society restricts us and we cant be human and fulfil our potential.
- "the care for external goods should only lie on the shoulders of the "saind like a light cloak which can be thrown aside at any moment" but fate decreed that the cloak should become an iron cage.' (protestan ethic)
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- ideal types are abstract
- they tell you something important
- but may never actually exist in reality
- when it comes to concrete historical instances you need lots of ideal types to get a decent, though still partial explanation.
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class, status and party:
- class is based in economic relationships
- Marx and Engels define all classes in terms of their relationship to production
- Weber says thier relationship to markets is more important.
- Lots more people are trying to do what the Bourgeoisie do: the bourgeoisie monopolise ownership of the means of production and they profir from this.
Cornering the market:
- the can try to corner to the markey in the market in credit, or land or residential builidng, or diamonds or a particular type of labour, or recreationaldrugs.
- these things create a class that are part of a social structure of society.... have the ability to monoplise and manipulate socierty through this power.
- trying to keep hold and make profit... concerning the market.
- need power in order to preserve you monopoly.
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- social class are made up of the people who have gained control of some market or other - the market for such and such sort of work, or product or raw material or money or credit etc.
- theres money to be made by keeping those jobs to themselves.
Small classes are Rich classes:
- most of the time gaining control means keeping other people out.
- classes which control the more valuable markets are the most successful at keeping others out, the # of people in these classes are small.
- socialisation in the calsses = private school - keeps control of keeping the same wealth and capital in these classes = marry someone from the same wealth class as you (socialisation)
- this is why society is a triangle. keep other people out.
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- way society is divide into classes = reflection of the different relationships people can have to various markets.
- members of classes who dont monopolise have no alternative but to compete with each other without protection.
- those lower classes have to take any job type and income.
- upper classes, dont really have to compete and help each other out... get the best jobs.
- Concern with culture
- not simply keeping up with the rest.
- identifying with people not competing with them.
- status groups are like communities of people who think of each other as similar standing.
- who you identify with and the group is the people that are like you.
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Class = Status:
- class difference and status differences can often coincide.
- success of classing in monopolising resources depends on them becoming status groups.
- the cultural stuff can have an economic pay-off also.
- if you monopolise more and take over and become more powerful the wealthy and the higher up in society you climb the status group will emerge higher.
- withough this monopolising and cluture group we are unable to create status.
- people buy the same things, wear the same thing, they can recognise each other socialise with each other have thing in common (e.g fox hunting, movies, opras etc) and for women the marriage factor of this help - to find a man of high status and class.
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- manufactur of cultural similarity makes the gorup - it's a cultural community.
- class ideoloy is to do with the culture of the status group: group has to beleive it is right to monopolise resources.
- status hroups of all kinds beleive it is justified that they have what they have.
- the group may also have to persuade other its monopoly is legitimare and this too depends on the culture the status group generates.
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Party (labour tory etc): Another way of struggling
- parties and factions are not simply the representatives of classes or status groups.
- the represent an alliance of classes or status groups.
- or only reprsent bit of some classes/ status groups.
- parties have interests of thie own.
- parties/ political fractions have their own economic interests.
- not a class, not really a status group however some elements are.
- Not just mouth pieces but have interests of its own the leaders of these parties.
- if parties have independent life, so do states.
- much more than 'excutive committees' which 'manage the affairs of the bourgeoisie'
- once in control of the state, you bare responsibility to the poeple that have voted for you, however you also are in charge and have huge amounts of power over these people.
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- states monopolise force and this means they need money
- they also need to look after thier own lefitimacy in the eyes of the population and this can take money too.
- where whole countries act like status groups.
- the money comes from the poeple that have electe these people.
- get the money out of taxes and out of the state also.
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