unit 4

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  • Created by: RubySayer
  • Created on: 29-11-19 20:19

Functions of blood

  • Transport
  • Temperature regulation
  • Exchange of materials with body tissues
  • Preventing infection 
  • Blood clotting 
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The cardiac conduction system

  • SA Node- sends impulses to muscle fibres on oposite side- in the right atrium to the left 
  • AV Node- catches impulses and delays them for a little while 
  • Bundle of His- impulses sent down to the bundle of his then sent left and right to the purkinje fibres 
  • Purkinje fibres- then make the right and left ventrical contract 
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nerves in the heart

Two sets of nerves control the heart and allow it to prepare for danger 

  • Parasympathetic branch- calms the heart and slows its pace 
  • Sympathetic branch- speeds the pace & increases the strength of the beat is govened 
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Role of the lymphatic system

  • Drainage and filteration 
  • Removes excess fluid from the body tissue
  • Absorbs fatty acids & transports them to the bloodstream 
  • Produces white blood cells which produce anti-bodies (lymphocytes) 
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How blood plasma becomes tissue fluid and lymph

  • Blood plasma in capillaries- forced out through 'leaky' capillary walls 
  • By hydrostatic pressue (pressue from heart pumping) 
  • Fluid must return to circulatory system otherwise oedema occurs 
  • Majority of fluid returns to capillaries 
  • Remaining fluid (10%) drains into lymph vessel 
  • This re-joins blood system near top of the body 
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ECG

  • Records the rhythm and electrical activity of the heart 
  • electrodes connected onto legs, arms and chest - they are connected by wires to an ECG recording machine - picks up electrical signals that makes the heart beat- recorded and then printed onto paper- can detect when a heart beat is normal, too slow, too fast or irregular
  • Resting ECG- individual is laying down in a comfortable position 
  • Stress or exercise ECG- carried out when using an exercise bike or a treadmill. 
  • Ambulatory ECG- Electrodes connected to a small portable machine worn at the waist so heart can be monitored at home for more than 1 day 
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Heart attack

Factors increasing risk 

  • Age
  • Smoking
  • High blood pressure 
  • Obesity 
  • diabetes
  • Family history 
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heart attack

symptoms 

  • Cold sweat- feel cold but are sweating because body is in crisist 
  • Shortness of breath
  • Light headedness/dissy
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heart attack

Treatments

depends when symptoms start 

  •  12 hours- PCI, non-surgical used to treat the narrowing of the coronary arteries - coronary catheterization, insert of catheter. if unable medication- breakdown blood clots 
  • 12+ hours- medication or bypass surgery- replace damaged arteries in heart muscle.
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heart attack

Diagnosis 

  • ECG 
  • Blood test
  • Communicate- ask questions about how they are feeling 
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heart attack

Lifestyle changes 

  • stop smoking 
  • cut down alcohol intake 
  • exercise regularly 
  • stay at a healthy weight 
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heart attack

Monitor 

  • routine ECG
  • heart monitor 
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hypertension

Factors increasing risk 

  • old age- heart muscle & cell wall
  • Family history
  • high salt intake- causes kidneys to retain water- increase blood volume- strain on heart 
  • lack of exercise 
  • obesity- more blood needs to be supplied with oxygen- more pressure to move blood around the body 
  • smoking- raises blood pressure & heart rate, narrows arteries & hardens their walls 
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Hypertension

Diagnosis

  • Electrocardiogram- measures hearts electrical activity 
  • blood pressure test
  • urine test- see how other organs are working
  • blood test
  • cholesterol test
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hypertension

Monitor

  • healthy adults aged over 40 - blood pressure checked at least once every 5 years 
  • 24 hour monitor that checks blood pressure through out the day 
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hypertension

symptoms

  • severe headache
  • vision problems
  • irregular heartbeat 
  • blood in the urine 
  • fatigue 
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hypertension

treatments 

  • cutting salt intake 
  • eating low-fat, balanced diet 
  • being active 
  • medication
  • ACE inhibitors- reduce blood pressure by relaxing blood vessels 
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hypertension

Lifestyle changes 

  • being active- resuces fatty buildup- less pressure around the blood vessles
  • stop smoking
  • drink less caffeine 
  • getting at least 6 hours of sleep per night 
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Coronary heart disease

Symptoms

  • Chest pain (angina) 
  • Heart attacks
  • Heart failure 
  • Heart palpitations 
  • unusual breathlessness 
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Coronary heart disease

Causes 

Hearts blood supply is blocked or interrupted by a build-up of fatty substances in coronary arteries. This can be caused by:

  • smoking
  • high cholesterol
  • high blood pressue
  • diabetes 
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Coronary heart disease

Diagnosing 

  • blood tests
  • doctor asking about medical, lifestyle and family history 
  • treadmill test 
  • CT scan 
  • MRI scan
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Coronary heart disease

Treatments

It cannot be cured- help to manage the symptoms and reduce chances of problems, heart attack

  • lifestyle changes- regular exercise & stop smoking 
  • medication 
  • angioplasty, balloons & stents used to narrow heart arteries 
  • surgery 
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Coronary heart disease

Lifestyle changes

  • Eating healthy, balanced diet
  • physically active
  • giving up smoking
  • controlling blood cholesterol and sugar levels 
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The heart

Image result for the heart labelled diagram

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