Types of volcano

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Cinder Cone Volcanoes

  • Conical shape, steep angled size, 1000 feet high.
  • Commonly found on the flanks of other volcanoes
    • Neraly 100 cinder cones on the flanks of Mauna Kea, Hawaii
  • Initially form around a volcanic vent, made up of alternating layers of ash and cinders (blobs of lava from the volcano rom an eruption)
  • During an eruption cinders are erupted and settle around the opening of the vent, then the ash will settle, creating the layers.
    • Direction of the wind can cause an irregular shaped base

Paricutin, Mexico

  • Active for 9 years between 1943-1952
  • Reached a height of 1200 feet
  • Destroyed the nearby twon of San Juan and killed 3 people.
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Shield Volcanoes

  • Broad, low in height, baal diameter ranges from a few km to over 100 km. The height is usually 1/20th of the width.
  • Very runny lava, not very viscous, basaltic lava
    • Usually travels quite far before solidifying
  • Often found at divergent plate boundaries

Kilauea, Hawaii

  • Nearby residents have been breathing in high levels of sulphur dioxide
  • In 1990, an eruption created a lava field that engulfed the town of Kalapana
  • There is acid rain from the released sulphur dioxide, damaging crops and buildings.
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Composite or Stratovolcano

  • Tall cone shaped volcano
  • Made up of lava, ash, pumice and tephra (rock fragments and particles)
  • Much more explosive than Shield eruptions but less extreme than Calderas
  • Magma is andesitic, meaning it contains alot of silica, making it very viscous.
    • This plugs up the crater, making eruptions more explosive.

Mount St.Helens, USA

  • May 18th 1980
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  • Formed when the volcano collapses in on itself
    • This occurs when the volcano erupts, expelling alot of magma, leaving the land above with no support below, leaving it to collapse inwards.
  • Can be up to 100km wide
  • Formed after a plinian eruption

Krakatoa, Indonesia

  • Massive eruption 1883
  • Heard 300miles away
  • Change dthe global temperature, down by 1.2 degrees C for 5 years
  • Destroyed almost the whole island it was on
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Acid / Dome Volcanoes

  • Form when andesitic lava solidifies quickly creating a steep sided convex cone
  • Formed by repeated violent eruptions of slow moving lava
  • High silica content in lava making eruptions violent

Mount Pelee, Martinique

  • Erupted massively in 1902
  • Killed 30,000
    • Most killed by pyroclastic flow
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Fissure Volcano

  • Occur at divergent plate boundaries
  • Linear vents, usually a few metres wide
  • Basaltic magma rises through the cracks, not very viscous
  • Eruptions are gentle and persistent

Holuhraun, Iceland

  • The eruption is ongoing from 29th August 2014
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