Types of Bonding


Simple Covalent

Between 2 non-metals


Share electrons to get a full outer shell

  • One shared pair - single bond
  • Two shared pairs = double bond (oxygen)


Simple covalent substances have:

  • low boiling points (turn to gas easily)
  • weak intermoleular forces between molecules
  • so little energy is need to overcome these forces
1 of 4

Ionic Bonding

Between a metal and a non-metal


Metal lose outer electrons to get a full outer shell - become positively charged

Non-metals gain electrons to get a full outer shell - become negatively charged


Ionic substances have:

  • high melting points - so are solids
  • large lattice structure
  • strong electrostatic forces between oppositely charged ions
  • can conduct electricity (in molten or solution form) - because ions can move freelyto electrodes
2 of 4


Between metals


Bond held together by the strong electrostatic forces between the postive nucleus and the negative sea of delocalised electrons


Pure metals are:

  • soft - same size atoms
  • arranged in layers - can slide over each other

Alloys are:

  • hard - different size atoms
  • layer are distorted  - cannnot slide

Metals can conduct electricity - sea of delocalised electrons that can flow between layers.

3 of 4

Giant Covalent

Graphite, diamond and silicon dioxide


Graphite - 3 carbon bonds

Diamond - 4 carbon bonds


Graphite is:

  • soft (good lubricant) - arranged in layers 
  • weak intermolecular forces between the layers - layers can slide
  • conducts electricity - free electrons flow between the structure carrying charge

Diamond is:

  • hard - 4 carbon bonds in a rigid lattie structure
  • with stong covalent bonds
  • no layers to slide
4 of 4


No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all Structure and bonding resources »