Behavioural Treatment - McGrath
Aim- To treat a girl with specific noise phobias using systematic desensitisation.
Pps- Lucy 9yrs with fear of sudden loud noises, lower than av. IQ, wasnt depressed.
- Procedure- Constructed hierarchy of feared noises
- taught breathing + imagery to relax - imagine herself at home on bed with her toys
- had hypothetical fear thermometer for rating fear 1-10
- given stimulus of loud noise she paired feared object with relaxation and imagery
- this lead to feelings of calmness so she associated the noise with feeling calm
- Findings- After 4 sessions she learned to feel calm when noise was presented + didnt need to use imagery
- 10th and final session fear thermometer scores gone from 7/10 to 3/10 for ballons
- 9/10 to 3/10 for party poppers
- 8/10 to 5/10 for cap guns
- conclusions: important factors - giving lucy control to say when/where noises made
- using inhibitors of fear response (relaxation and playful environment).
- single participant design- cant generalise to other people/phobias
- useful - able to treat noise phobia using systematic desensitisation
- ethics - children
Biological Treatments - Karp and Frank
Aim - Compare drug treatment and non-drug treatment for depression in women
Method - Review article
- Pps - Women diagnosed with depression
- Procedure - Depression analysed useing depression inventories.
- general testing prior to treatment, after and in some cases some time after as a follow up.
- some health practioner assessment of symptoms were used by some research.
- Findings- Adding psychological treatment to drug therapy didnt increase drugs effectiveness
- combination therapy had lower attrition rates.
Karp and Frank Evaluation
- androcentric - only used females
- ethics - placebo group
- independent measures - individual differences
- holistic - considers psychological and biological treatment
Cognitive Treatment - Beck et al.
- Aim- Compare effectiveness of cognitive therapy and drug therapy
- Method- Controlled experiment with pps allocated to 1 of 2 conditions
- Pps- 44 patients diagnosed with moderate-severe depression attending psychiatric outpatients clinics.
- Procedure- Pps assessed with 3 self-reports before treatment (Becks Depression Inventory, Hamilton Rating Scale and Rasking Scale)
- for 12 weeks patients had 1-hour cognitive therapy session twice a week or 100 imipramine capsules prescribed by visiting doctor for 20mins each week
- cog therapy sessions prescribed and controlled and therapists were observed to ensure reliability
- Findings- Both groups showed significant decrease in depression symptoms
- cognitive treatment group showed significantly greater improvements on self-reports and observer-based ratings (78,9% compared to 20% of those with drug therapy)
- drop-out rate 5% in cognitive therapy and 32% in drug treatment
Conclusion- Cog therapy leads to better treatment of depression, shown by fewer symptoms, and also better adherence to treatment.
Beck et al. Evaluation
- it may have been simply getting out of the house for 1 hour twice a week and having social interaction that improved the patients depression
- didnt have a control group to account for this variable
- independent design - participant variables
- useful - shows cognitive therapy is a good way to treat depression
- self-report - social desirability